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Neuronal Stress and Injury Caused by HIV-1, cART and Drug Abuse: Converging Contributions to HAND

by Ana B. Sanchez 1 and Marcus Kaul 1,2,*
Immunity and Pathogenesis Program, Infectious and Inflammatory Disease Center, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jaime H. Vera Rojas
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(3), 25;
Received: 18 January 2017 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND))
Multiple mechanisms appear to contribute to neuronal stress and injury underlying HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), which occur despite the successful introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Evidence is accumulating that components of cART can itself be neurotoxic upon long-term exposure. In addition, abuse of psychostimulants, such as methamphetamine (METH), seems to compromise antiretroviral therapy and aggravate HAND. However, the combined effect of virus and recreational and therapeutic drugs on the brain is still incompletely understood. However, several lines of evidence suggest a shared critical role of oxidative stress, compromised neuronal energy homeostasis and autophagy in promotion and prevention of neuronal dysfunction associated with HIV-1 infection, cART and psychostimulant use. In this review, we present a synopsis of recent work related to neuronal stress and injury induced by HIV infection, antiretrovirals (ARVs) and the highly addictive psychostimulant METH. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV-1; HAND; anti-retroviral; methamphetamine; neurotoxicity HIV-1; HAND; anti-retroviral; methamphetamine; neurotoxicity
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Sanchez, A.B.; Kaul, M. Neuronal Stress and Injury Caused by HIV-1, cART and Drug Abuse: Converging Contributions to HAND. Brain Sci. 2017, 7, 25.

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