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Article

Psychological and Physiological Signatures of Music Listening in Different Listening Environments—An Exploratory Study

by 1,2,*,†, 2,† and 1,2
1
Faculty of Educational Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 9, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
2
Cognitive Brain Research Unit, Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 21, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equal contribution.
Academic Editor: Daniel J. Levitin
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(5), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11050593
Received: 30 March 2021 / Revised: 27 April 2021 / Accepted: 30 April 2021 / Published: 3 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Systems Neuroscience)
We compared music emotion ratings and their physiological correlates when the participants listened to music at home and in the laboratory. We hypothesized that music emotions are stronger in a familiar environment, that is, at home. Participants listened to their self-selected favorite and neutral music excerpts at home and in the laboratory for 10 min in each environment. They completed the questionnaires about their emotional states and gave saliva samples for the analyses of the stress hormone cortisol. We found that in the context of music listening, the participants’ emotion ratings differed between home and the laboratory. Furthermore, the cortisol levels were generally lower at home than in the laboratory and decreased after music listening at home and in the laboratory. However, the modulatory effects of music listening on cortisol levels did not differ between the home and the laboratory. Our exploratory multimethodological data offer novel insight about the psychological and physiological consequences of music listening. These data reveal the sensitivity of the current research methods to investigate human emotions in various contexts without excluding the use of laboratory environment in investigating them. View Full-Text
Keywords: music; emotion; emotion regulation; stress reduction; cortisol music; emotion; emotion regulation; stress reduction; cortisol
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tervaniemi, M.; Makkonen, T.; Nie, P. Psychological and Physiological Signatures of Music Listening in Different Listening Environments—An Exploratory Study. Brain Sci. 2021, 11, 593. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11050593

AMA Style

Tervaniemi M, Makkonen T, Nie P. Psychological and Physiological Signatures of Music Listening in Different Listening Environments—An Exploratory Study. Brain Sciences. 2021; 11(5):593. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11050593

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tervaniemi, Mari, Tommi Makkonen, and Peixin Nie. 2021. "Psychological and Physiological Signatures of Music Listening in Different Listening Environments—An Exploratory Study" Brain Sciences 11, no. 5: 593. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11050593

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