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Article

Dynamic Functional Network Connectivity Changes Associated with fMRI Neurofeedback of Right Premotor Cortex

1
The State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning & IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
2
Institute of Psychological Sciences, College of Education, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310031, China
3
The School of Information Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ardalan Aarabi
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(5), 582; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11050582
Received: 2 April 2021 / Revised: 27 April 2021 / Accepted: 27 April 2021 / Published: 30 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain Dynamics and Connectivity from Birth through Adulthood)
Neurofeedback of real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) can enable people to self-regulate motor-related brain regions and lead to alteration of motor performance and functional connectivity (FC) underlying motor execution tasks. Numerous studies suggest that FCs dynamically fluctuate over time. However, little is known about the impact of neurofeedback training of the motor-related region on the dynamic characteristics of FC underlying motor execution tasks. This study aims to investigate the mechanism of self-regulation of the right premotor area (PMA) on the underlying dynamic functional network connectivity (DFNC) of motor execution (ME) tasks and reveal the relationship between DFNC, training effect, and motor performance. The results indicate that the experimental group spent less time on state 2, with overall weak connections, and more time on state 6, having strong positive connections between motor-related networks than the control group after the training. For the experimental group’s state 2, the mean dwell time after the training showed negative correlation with the tapping frequency and the amount of upregulation of PMA. The findings show that rtfMRI neurofeedback can change the temporal properties of DFNC, and the DFNC changes in state with overall weak connections were associated with the training effect and the improvement in motor performance. View Full-Text
Keywords: real-time fMRI; neurofeedback; dynamic functional network connectivity; functional connectivity state; motor execution real-time fMRI; neurofeedback; dynamic functional network connectivity; functional connectivity state; motor execution
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MDPI and ACS Style

Long, Z.; Guo, Z.; Guo, Z.; Zhang, H.; Yao, L. Dynamic Functional Network Connectivity Changes Associated with fMRI Neurofeedback of Right Premotor Cortex. Brain Sci. 2021, 11, 582. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11050582

AMA Style

Long Z, Guo Z, Guo Z, Zhang H, Yao L. Dynamic Functional Network Connectivity Changes Associated with fMRI Neurofeedback of Right Premotor Cortex. Brain Sciences. 2021; 11(5):582. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11050582

Chicago/Turabian Style

Long, Zhiying, Zhaoxi Guo, Zhitao Guo, Hang Zhang, and Li Yao. 2021. "Dynamic Functional Network Connectivity Changes Associated with fMRI Neurofeedback of Right Premotor Cortex" Brain Sciences 11, no. 5: 582. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11050582

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