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Distinguishing Alzheimer’s Disease Patients and Biochemical Phenotype Analysis Using a Novel Serum Profiling Platform: Potential Involvement of the VWF/ADAMTS13 Axis

1
Department of Biochemistry, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
2
Department of Surgery, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
3
Veterans Administration Hospital, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
4
Department of Neurology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Sandra Moreno and Chiara Villa
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(5), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11050583
Received: 13 April 2021 / Revised: 25 April 2021 / Accepted: 27 April 2021 / Published: 30 April 2021
It is important to develop minimally invasive biomarker platforms to help in the identification and monitoring of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Assisting in the understanding of biochemical mechanisms as well as identifying potential novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets would be an added benefit of such platforms. This study utilizes a simplified and novel serum profiling platform, using mass spectrometry (MS), to help distinguish AD patient groups (mild and moderate) and controls, as well as to aid in understanding of biochemical phenotypes and possible disease development. A comparison of discriminating sera mass peaks between AD patients and control individuals was performed using leave one [serum sample] out cross validation (LOOCV) combined with a novel peak classification valuation (PCV) procedure. LOOCV/PCV was able to distinguish significant sera mass peak differences between a group of mild AD patients and control individuals with a p value of 10−13. This value became non-significant (p = 0.09) when the same sera samples were randomly allocated between the two groups and reanalyzed by LOOCV/PCV. This is indicative of physiological group differences in the original true-pathology binary group comparison. Similarities and differences between AD patients and traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients were also discernable using this novel LOOCV/PCV platform. MS/MS peptide analysis was performed on serum mass peaks comparing mild AD patients with control individuals. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that cell pathways/biochemical phenotypes affected in AD include those involving neuronal cell death, vasculature, neurogenesis, and AD/dementia/amyloidosis. Inflammation, autoimmunity, autophagy, and blood–brain barrier pathways also appear to be relevant to AD. An impaired VWF/ADAMTS13 vasculature axis with connections to F8 (factor VIII) and LRP1 and NOTCH1 was indicated and is proposed to be important in AD development. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease (AD); biochemical phenotype analysis; serum profiling; mass spectrometry; VWF/ADAMTS13 axis; traumatic brain injury (TBI); SSPO AD biomarker Alzheimer’s disease (AD); biochemical phenotype analysis; serum profiling; mass spectrometry; VWF/ADAMTS13 axis; traumatic brain injury (TBI); SSPO AD biomarker
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hanas, J.S.; Hocker, J.R.S.; Vannarath, C.A.; Lerner, M.R.; Blair, S.G.; Lightfoot, S.A.; Hanas, R.J.; Couch, J.R.; Hershey, L.A. Distinguishing Alzheimer’s Disease Patients and Biochemical Phenotype Analysis Using a Novel Serum Profiling Platform: Potential Involvement of the VWF/ADAMTS13 Axis. Brain Sci. 2021, 11, 583. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11050583

AMA Style

Hanas JS, Hocker JRS, Vannarath CA, Lerner MR, Blair SG, Lightfoot SA, Hanas RJ, Couch JR, Hershey LA. Distinguishing Alzheimer’s Disease Patients and Biochemical Phenotype Analysis Using a Novel Serum Profiling Platform: Potential Involvement of the VWF/ADAMTS13 Axis. Brain Sciences. 2021; 11(5):583. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11050583

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hanas, Jay S., James R.S. Hocker, Christian A. Vannarath, Megan R. Lerner, Scott G. Blair, Stan A. Lightfoot, Rushie J. Hanas, James R. Couch, and Linda A. Hershey. 2021. "Distinguishing Alzheimer’s Disease Patients and Biochemical Phenotype Analysis Using a Novel Serum Profiling Platform: Potential Involvement of the VWF/ADAMTS13 Axis" Brain Sciences 11, no. 5: 583. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11050583

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