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Article

Manic and Depressive Symptoms in Children Diagnosed with Noonan Syndrome

1
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, 00165 Rome, Italy
2
Fondazione UILDM Lazio Onlus, 00167, Rome, Italy
3
Section of Child and Adolescent Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Human Neuroscience, Sapienza University of Rome, 00161 Rome, Italy
4
Unit of Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Disorders, Department of Neuroscience, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, 00165 Rome, Italy
5
Genetics and Rare Diseases Research Division, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, 00146 Rome, Italy
6
Department of Life Sciences and Public Health, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 00168 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Academic Editor: Atsumi Nitta
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(2), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11020233
Received: 24 December 2020 / Revised: 1 February 2021 / Accepted: 8 February 2021 / Published: 13 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue At the Frontiers of Bipolar Disorder)
Noonan syndrome (NS) is a dominant clinically variable and genetically heterogeneous developmental disorder caused by germ-line mutations encoding components of the Ras–MAPK signaling pathway. A few studies have investigated psychopathological features occurring in individuals with NS, although they were poorly analyzed. The aim of the present work is to investigate the psychopathological features in children and adolescents with NS focusing on depressive and hypo-manic symptoms. Thirty-seven subjects with molecularly confirmed diagnosis were systematically evaluated through a psychopathological assessment. In addition, an evaluation of the cognitive level was performed. Our analyses showed a high recurrence of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder symptoms, emotional dysregulation, irritability, and anxiety symptomatology. The mean cognitive level was on the average. The present study provides new relevant information on psychopathological features in individuals with NS. The implications for clinicians are discussed including the monitoring of mood disorders in a clinical evolution. View Full-Text
Keywords: psychopathological features; attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder; deficient emotional self-regulation; irritability; anxiety traits; mood psychopathological features; attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder; deficient emotional self-regulation; irritability; anxiety traits; mood
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alfieri, P.; Cumbo, F.; Serra, G.; Trasolini, M.; Frattini, C.; Scibelli, F.; Licchelli, S.; Cirillo, F.; Caciolo, C.; Casini, M.P.; D’Amico, A.; Tartaglia, M.; Digilio, M.C.; Capolino, R.; Vicari, S. Manic and Depressive Symptoms in Children Diagnosed with Noonan Syndrome. Brain Sci. 2021, 11, 233. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11020233

AMA Style

Alfieri P, Cumbo F, Serra G, Trasolini M, Frattini C, Scibelli F, Licchelli S, Cirillo F, Caciolo C, Casini MP, D’Amico A, Tartaglia M, Digilio MC, Capolino R, Vicari S. Manic and Depressive Symptoms in Children Diagnosed with Noonan Syndrome. Brain Sciences. 2021; 11(2):233. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11020233

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alfieri, Paolo, Francesca Cumbo, Giulia Serra, Monia Trasolini, Camilla Frattini, Francesco Scibelli, Serena Licchelli, Flavia Cirillo, Cristina Caciolo, Maria Pia Casini, Adele D’Amico, Marco Tartaglia, Maria Cristina Digilio, Rossella Capolino, and Stefano Vicari. 2021. "Manic and Depressive Symptoms in Children Diagnosed with Noonan Syndrome" Brain Sciences 11, no. 2: 233. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11020233

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