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Article

Effects of Functional Electrical Stimulation Cycling of Different Duration on Viscoelastic and Electromyographic Properties of the Knee in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury

1
Laboratory of Neuro-Biomechanics, Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
2
Residency Program of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
3
Cardiff School of Sport and Health Sciences, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff CF5 2YB, UK
4
Spinal Cord Unit, Cannizzaro Hospital, 95126 Catania, Italy
5
U.O.P.I. Gait and Posture Analysis Laboratory—A.O.U. Policlinico Vittorio Emanuele, 95123 Catania, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed.
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11010007
Received: 16 November 2020 / Revised: 17 December 2020 / Accepted: 21 December 2020 / Published: 23 December 2020
The benefits of functional electrical stimulation during cycling (FES-cycling) have been ascertained following spinal cord injury. The instrumented pendulum test was applied to chronic paraplegic patients to investigate the effects of FES-cycling of different duration (20-min vs. 40-min) on biomechanical and electromyographic characterization of knee mobility. Seven adults with post-traumatic paraplegia attended two FES-cycling sessions, a 20-min and a 40-min one, in a random order. Knee angular excursion, stiffness and viscosity were measured using the pendulum test before and after each session. Surface electromyographic activity was recorded from the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles. FES-cycling led to reduced excursion (p < 0.001) and increased stiffness (p = 0.005) of the knee, which was more evident after the 20-min than 40-min session. Noteworthy, biomechanical changes were associated with an increase of muscle activity and changes in latency of muscle activity only for 20-min, with anticipated response times for RF (p < 0.001) and delayed responses for BF (p = 0.033). These results indicate that significant functional changes in knee mobility can be achieved by FES-cycling for 20 min, as evaluated by the pendulum test in patients with chronic paraplegia. The observed muscle behaviour suggests modulatory effects of exercise on spinal network aimed to partially restore automatic neuronal processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: kinematics; spinal cord injury; paraplegia; spatiotemporal analysis; electromyography; regression analysis; stiffness; viscosity; pendulum test; neurologic disorders kinematics; spinal cord injury; paraplegia; spatiotemporal analysis; electromyography; regression analysis; stiffness; viscosity; pendulum test; neurologic disorders
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MDPI and ACS Style

Casabona, A.; Valle, M.S.; Dominante, C.; Laudani, L.; Onesta, M.P.; Cioni, M. Effects of Functional Electrical Stimulation Cycling of Different Duration on Viscoelastic and Electromyographic Properties of the Knee in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury. Brain Sci. 2021, 11, 7. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11010007

AMA Style

Casabona A, Valle MS, Dominante C, Laudani L, Onesta MP, Cioni M. Effects of Functional Electrical Stimulation Cycling of Different Duration on Viscoelastic and Electromyographic Properties of the Knee in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury. Brain Sciences. 2021; 11(1):7. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11010007

Chicago/Turabian Style

Casabona, Antonino, Maria Stella Valle, Claudio Dominante, Luca Laudani, Maria Pia Onesta, and Matteo Cioni. 2021. "Effects of Functional Electrical Stimulation Cycling of Different Duration on Viscoelastic and Electromyographic Properties of the Knee in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury" Brain Sciences 11, no. 1: 7. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11010007

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