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Article

Non-Immersive Virtual Reality for Post-Stroke Upper Extremity Rehabilitation: A Small Cohort Randomized Trial

1
Faculty of Medicine, Transilvania University of Brasov, 500036 Brasov, Romania
2
Rehabilitation Department, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 0050474 Bucuresti, Romania
3
Department of Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine and Rheumatology, “Victor Babeș” University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Timisoara, 300041 Timisoara, Romania
4
Faculty of Letters, Transilvania University of Brasov, 500030 Brasov, Romania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(9), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10090655
Received: 26 August 2020 / Revised: 17 September 2020 / Accepted: 18 September 2020 / Published: 21 September 2020
Immersive and non-immersive virtual reality (NIVR) technology can supplement and improve standard physiotherapy and neurorehabilitation in post-stroke patients. We aimed to use MIRA software to investigate the efficiency of specific NIVR therapy as a standalone intervention, versus standardized physiotherapy for upper extremity rehabilitation in patients post-stroke. Fifty-five inpatients were randomized to control groups (applying standard physiotherapy and dexterity exercises) and experimental groups (applying NIVR and dexterity exercises). The two groups were subdivided into subacute (<six months post-stroke) and chronic (>six months to four years post-stroke survival patients). The following standardized tests were applied at baseline and after two weeks post-therapy: Fugl–Meyer Assessment for Upper Extremity (FMUE), the Modified Rankin Scale (MRS), Functional Independence Measure (FIM), Active Range of Motion (AROM), Manual Muscle Testing (MMT), Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), and Functional Reach Test (FRT). The Kruskal–Wallis test was used to determine if there were significant differences between the groups, followed with pairwise comparisons. The Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test was used to determine the significance of pre to post-therapy changes. The Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test showed significant differences in all four groups regarding MMT, FMUE, and FIM assessments pre- and post-therapy, while for AROM, only experimental groups registered significant differences. Independent Kruskal–Wallis results showed that the subacute experimental group outcomes were statistically significant regarding the assessments, especially in comparison with the control groups. The results suggest that NIVR rehabilitation is efficient to be administered to post-stroke patients, and the study design can be used for a further trial, in the perspective that NIVR therapy can be more efficient than standard physiotherapy within the first six months post-stroke. View Full-Text
Keywords: virtual reality; post-stroke subacute; post-stroke chronic; neuroplasticity; upper-extremity rehabilitation; physiotherapy virtual reality; post-stroke subacute; post-stroke chronic; neuroplasticity; upper-extremity rehabilitation; physiotherapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Miclaus, R.; Roman, N.; Caloian, S.; Mitoiu, B.; Suciu, O.; Onofrei, R.R.; Pavel, E.; Neculau, A. Non-Immersive Virtual Reality for Post-Stroke Upper Extremity Rehabilitation: A Small Cohort Randomized Trial. Brain Sci. 2020, 10, 655. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10090655

AMA Style

Miclaus R, Roman N, Caloian S, Mitoiu B, Suciu O, Onofrei RR, Pavel E, Neculau A. Non-Immersive Virtual Reality for Post-Stroke Upper Extremity Rehabilitation: A Small Cohort Randomized Trial. Brain Sciences. 2020; 10(9):655. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10090655

Chicago/Turabian Style

Miclaus, Roxana, Nadinne Roman, Silviu Caloian, Brindusa Mitoiu, Oana Suciu, Roxana R. Onofrei, Ecaterina Pavel, and Andrea Neculau. 2020. "Non-Immersive Virtual Reality for Post-Stroke Upper Extremity Rehabilitation: A Small Cohort Randomized Trial" Brain Sciences 10, no. 9: 655. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10090655

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