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Combining HF rTMS over the Left DLPFC with Concurrent Cognitive Activity for the Offline Modulation of Working Memory in Healthy Volunteers: A Proof-of-Concept Study

1
Research Center of Neurology, Volokolamskoe Shosse, 80, Moscow 125367, Russia
2
Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Bolshoy Boulevard, 30, bld. 1, Territory of Innovation Center «Skolkovo», Moscow 121205, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(2), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10020083
Received: 27 December 2019 / Revised: 31 January 2020 / Accepted: 3 February 2020 / Published: 4 February 2020
It has been proposed that the effectiveness of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) as a cognitive enhancement technique may be enhanced by combining the stimulation with concurrent cognitive activity. However, the benefits of such a combination in comparison to protocols without ongoing cognitive activity have not yet been studied. In the present study, we investigate the effects of fMRI-guided high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF rTMS) over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on working memory (WM) in healthy volunteers, using an n-back task with spatial and verbal stimuli and a spatial span task. In two combined protocols (TMS + WM + (maintenance) and TMS + WM + (rest)) trains of stimuli were applied in the maintenance and rest periods of the modified Sternberg task, respectively. We compared them to HF rTMS without a cognitive load (TMS + WM −) and control stimulation (TMS − WM + (maintenance)). No serious adverse effects appeared in this study. Among all protocols, significant effects on WM were shown only for the TMS + WM − with oppositely directed influences of this protocol on storage and manipulation in spatial WM. Moreover, there was a significant difference between the effects of TMS + WM − and TMS + WM + (maintenance), suggesting that simultaneous cognitive activity does not necessarily lead to an increase in TMS effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: working memory; non-invasive brain stimulation; transcranial magnetic stimulation; neuromodulation; cognitive function; cognitive training; N-back task; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; cognitive enhancement working memory; non-invasive brain stimulation; transcranial magnetic stimulation; neuromodulation; cognitive function; cognitive training; N-back task; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; cognitive enhancement
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bakulin, I.; Zabirova, A.; Lagoda, D.; Poydasheva, A.; Cherkasova, A.; Pavlov, N.; Kopnin, P.; Sinitsyn, D.; Kremneva, E.; Fedorov, M.; Gnedovskaya, E.; Suponeva, N.; Piradov, M. Combining HF rTMS over the Left DLPFC with Concurrent Cognitive Activity for the Offline Modulation of Working Memory in Healthy Volunteers: A Proof-of-Concept Study. Brain Sci. 2020, 10, 83. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10020083

AMA Style

Bakulin I, Zabirova A, Lagoda D, Poydasheva A, Cherkasova A, Pavlov N, Kopnin P, Sinitsyn D, Kremneva E, Fedorov M, Gnedovskaya E, Suponeva N, Piradov M. Combining HF rTMS over the Left DLPFC with Concurrent Cognitive Activity for the Offline Modulation of Working Memory in Healthy Volunteers: A Proof-of-Concept Study. Brain Sciences. 2020; 10(2):83. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10020083

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bakulin, Ilya, Alfiia Zabirova, Dmitry Lagoda, Alexandra Poydasheva, Anastasiia Cherkasova, Nikolay Pavlov, Peter Kopnin, Dmitry Sinitsyn, Elena Kremneva, Maxim Fedorov, Elena Gnedovskaya, Natalia Suponeva, and Michael Piradov. 2020. "Combining HF rTMS over the Left DLPFC with Concurrent Cognitive Activity for the Offline Modulation of Working Memory in Healthy Volunteers: A Proof-of-Concept Study" Brain Sciences 10, no. 2: 83. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10020083

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