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Open AccessArticle

Behavioral and Electrophysiological Correlates of Performance Monitoring and Development in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

1
Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, MI 48109, USA
2
Mathison Centre for Mental Health Research & Education and Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, AB T2N 4Z6, Canada
3
Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, MI 48109, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(2), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10020079
Received: 14 January 2020 / Revised: 31 January 2020 / Accepted: 31 January 2020 / Published: 2 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ERP and EEG Markers of Brain Visual Attentional Processing)
The pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) involves deficits in performance monitoring and adaptive adjustments. Yet, the developmental trajectory and underlying neural correlates of performance monitoring deficits in youth with ADHD remain poorly understood. To address the gap, this study recruited 77 children and adolescents with ADHD and 77 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC), ages 8–18 years, who performed an arrow flanker task during electroencephalogram recording. Compared to HC, participants with ADHD responded more slowly and showed larger reaction time variability (RTV) and reduced post-error slowing; they also exhibited reduced error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity effects, and reduced N2 and P3 congruency effects. Age effects were observed across groups: with increasing age, participants responded faster, with less variability, and with increased post-error slowing. They also exhibited increased ERN effects and increased N2 and P3 congruency effects. Increased RTV and reduced P3 amplitude in incongruent trials were associated with increased ADHD Problems Scale scores on the Child Behavior Checklist across groups. The altered behavioral and ERP responses in ADHD are consistent with the pattern associated with younger age across groups. Further research with a longitudinal design may determine specific aspects of developmental alteration and deficits in ADHD during performance monitoring. View Full-Text
Keywords: ADHD; performance monitoring; error processing; event-related potentials ADHD; performance monitoring; error processing; event-related potentials
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Liu, Y.; Hanna, G.L.; Hanna, B.S.; Rough, H.E.; Arnold, P.D.; Gehring, W.J. Behavioral and Electrophysiological Correlates of Performance Monitoring and Development in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Brain Sci. 2020, 10, 79.

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