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Open AccessArticle

Progression of Neuropsychiatric Symptoms over Time in an Incident Parkinson’s Disease Cohort (ICICLE-PD)

1
Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE4 5PL, UK
2
Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4SB, UK
3
School of Medicine and Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast 4222, Australia
4
School of Medicine, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia
5
John van Geest Centre for Brain Repair, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0PY, UK
6
Anne Rowling Regenerative Neurology Clinic, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4SB, UK
7
Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4UX, UK
8
Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University & Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, UK
9
Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne NE7 7DN, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(2), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10020078
Received: 15 December 2019 / Revised: 25 January 2020 / Accepted: 31 January 2020 / Published: 2 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progression of Cognitive Decline in Older Adults with Parkinson’s)
Background: Cross-sectional studies have identified that the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) ranges from 70–89%. However, there are few longitudinal studies determining the impact of NPS on quality of life (QoL) in PD patients and their caregivers. We seek to determine the progression of NPS in early PD. Methods: Newly diagnosed idiopathic PD cases (n = 212) and age-matched controls (n = 99) were recruited into a longitudinal study. NPS were assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory with Caregiver Distress scale (NPI-D). Further neuropsychological and clinical assessments were completed by participants, with reassessment at 18 and 36 months. Linear mixed-effects modelling determined factors associated with NPI-D and QoL over 36 months. Results: Depression, anxiety, apathy and hallucinations were more frequent in PD than controls at all time points (p < 0.05). Higher motor severity at baseline was associated with worsening NPI-D scores over time (β = 0.1, p < 0.05), but not cognition. A higher NPI total score was associated with poorer QoL at any time point (β = 0.3, p < 0.001), but not changed in QoL scores. Conclusion: NPS are significantly associated with poorer QoL, even in early PD. Screening for NPS from diagnosis may allow efficient delivery of better support and treatment to patients and their families. View Full-Text
Keywords: neuropsychiatric symptoms; Parkinson’s disease; quality of life; non-motor neuropsychiatric symptoms; Parkinson’s disease; quality of life; non-motor
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Dlay, J.K.; Duncan, G.W.; Khoo, T.K.; Williams-Gray, C.H.; Breen, D.P.; Barker, R.A.; Burn, D.J.; Lawson, R.A.; Yarnall, A.J. Progression of Neuropsychiatric Symptoms over Time in an Incident Parkinson’s Disease Cohort (ICICLE-PD). Brain Sci. 2020, 10, 78.

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