Among brain-computer interface studies, electroencephalography (EEG)-based emotion recognition is receiving attention and some studies have performed regression analyses to recognize small-scale emotional changes; however, effective brain regions in emotion regression analyses have not been identified yet. Accordingly, this study sought to identify neural activities correlating with emotional states in the source space. We employed independent component analysis, followed by a source localization method, to obtain distinct neural activities from EEG signals. After the identification of seven independent component (IC) clusters in a k-means clustering analysis, group-level regression analyses using frequency band power of the ICs were performed based on Russell’s valence–arousal model. As a result, in the regression of the valence level, an IC cluster located in the cuneus predicted both high- and low-valence states and two other IC clusters located in the left precentral gyrus and the precuneus predicted the low-valence state. In the regression of the arousal level, the IC cluster located in the cuneus predicted both high- and low-arousal states and two posterior IC clusters located in the cingulate gyrus and the precuneus predicted the high-arousal state. In this proof-of-concept study, we revealed neural activities correlating with specific emotional states across participants, despite individual differences in emotional processing.
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