Next Article in Journal
Breastfeeding Duration Is Associated with Regional, but Not Global, Differences in White Matter Tracts
Previous Article in Journal
Understanding Social Cognition Using Virtual Reality: Are We still Nibbling around the Edges?
Previous Article in Special Issue
Helicobacter pylori, Vascular Risk Factors and Cognition in U.S. Older Adults
Open AccessArticle

Haptoglobin Hp1 Variant Does Not Associate with Small Vessel Disease

Clinical Neurosciences, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
Department of Neurology, Helsinki University Hospital, Haartmaninkatu 4, 00290 Helsinki, Finland
Department of Public Health Solutions, National institute for Health and Welfare, Mannerheimintie 166, 00300 Helsinki, Finland
Division of Medicine, Turku University Hospital and University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland
School of Medicine, University of Tampere, 33014 Tampere, Finland
FimLab Laboratories Ltd., Tampere University Hospital Region, 33014 Tampere, Finland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(1), 18;
Received: 12 November 2019 / Revised: 16 December 2019 / Accepted: 24 December 2019 / Published: 28 December 2019
Haptoglobin (Hp) is a plasma protein that binds free hemoglobin and protects tissues from oxidative damage. An Hp2 allele has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular complications. On the other hand, recent studies have suggested that Hp1 allele increases risk to develop severe cerebral small vessel disease. We aimed to replicate this finding in a first-ever stroke patient cohort. Hp was genotyped by PCR and gel electrophoresis in the Helsinki Stroke Aging Memory Study in patients with DNA and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) available (SAM; n = 316). Lacunar infarcts and white matter lesions (WML) classified by Fazekas grading from brain MRI were associated with Hp genotypes. As population controls, we used participants of Cardiovascular diseases—a sub study of Health 2000 Survey (n = 1417). In the SAM cohort, 63.0% of Hp1-1 carriers (n = 46), 52.5% of Hp1-2 carriers (n = 141) and 51.2% of Hp2-2 carriers (n = 129) had severe WML (p = 0.372). There was no difference in severe WMLs between Hp1-1 vs. Hp1-2 and Hp2-2 carriers (p = 0.201). In addition, 68.9% of Hp1-1 carriers (n = 45), 58.5% of Hp1-2 carriers (n = 135), and 61.8% of Hp2-2 carriers (n = 126) had one or more lacunar lesions (p = 0.472). There was no difference in the number of patients with at least one lacunar infarct between Hp1-1 vs. Hp1-2 and Hp2-2 groups (p = 0.322). Neither was there any difference when diabetic patients (type I and II) were examined separately. Hp1 allele is not associated with an increased risk for cerebral small vessel disease in a well-characterized Finnish stroke patient cohort. View Full-Text
Keywords: haptoglobins; small vessel disease (SVD); white matter lesions (WML); lacunar infarct haptoglobins; small vessel disease (SVD); white matter lesions (WML); lacunar infarct
MDPI and ACS Style

Lempiäinen, J.; Ijäs, P.; Niiranen, T.J.; Kaste, M.; Karhunen, P.J.; Lindsberg, P.J.; Erkinjuntti, T.; Melkas, S. Haptoglobin Hp1 Variant Does Not Associate with Small Vessel Disease. Brain Sci. 2020, 10, 18.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop