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Review

Clinical Brain Monitoring with Time Domain NIRS: A Review and Future Perspectives

Biomedical Optics Research Laboratory, Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
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Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(8), 1612; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9081612
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 28 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Horizons in Time-Domain Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging)
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is an optical technique that can measure brain tissue oxygenation and haemodynamics in real-time and at the patient bedside allowing medical doctors to access important physiological information. However, despite this, the use of NIRS in a clinical environment is hindered due to limitations, such as poor reproducibility, lack of depth sensitivity and poor brain-specificity. Time domain NIRS (or TD-NIRS) can resolve these issues and offer detailed information of the optical properties of the tissue, allowing better physiological information to be retrieved. This is achieved at the cost of increased instrument complexity, operation complexity and price. In this review, we focus on brain monitoring clinical applications of TD-NIRS. A total of 52 publications were identified, spanning the fields of neonatal imaging, stroke assessment, traumatic brain injury (TBI) assessment, brain death assessment, psychiatry, peroperative care, neuronal disorders assessment and communication with patient with locked-in syndrome. In all the publications, the advantages of the TD-NIRS measurement to (1) extract absolute values of haemoglobin concentration and tissue oxygen saturation, (2) assess the reduced scattering coefficient, and (3) separate between extra-cerebral and cerebral tissues, are highlighted; and emphasize the utility of TD-NIRS in a clinical context. In the last sections of this review, we explore the recent developments of TD-NIRS, in terms of instrumentation and methodologies that might impact and broaden its use in the hospital. View Full-Text
Keywords: NIRS; diffuse optics; time-domain; time-resolved; brain oxygenation; tissue saturation; scattering; absorption NIRS; diffuse optics; time-domain; time-resolved; brain oxygenation; tissue saturation; scattering; absorption
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lange, F.; Tachtsidis, I. Clinical Brain Monitoring with Time Domain NIRS: A Review and Future Perspectives. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 1612. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9081612

AMA Style

Lange F, Tachtsidis I. Clinical Brain Monitoring with Time Domain NIRS: A Review and Future Perspectives. Applied Sciences. 2019; 9(8):1612. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9081612

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lange, Frédéric, and Ilias Tachtsidis. 2019. "Clinical Brain Monitoring with Time Domain NIRS: A Review and Future Perspectives" Applied Sciences 9, no. 8: 1612. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9081612

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