Non-stationary time series (TS) analysis has gained an explosive interest over the recent decades in different applied sciences. In fact, several decomposition methods were developed in order to extract various components (e.g., seasonal, trend and abrupt components) from the non-stationary TS, which allows for an improved interpretation of the temporal variability. The wavelet transform (WT) has been successfully applied over an extraordinary range of fields in order to decompose the non-stationary TS into time-frequency domain. For this reason, the WT method is briefly introduced and reviewed in this paper. In addition, this latter includes different research and applications of the WT to non-stationary TS in seven different applied sciences fields, namely the geo-sciences and geophysics, remote sensing in vegetation analysis, engineering, hydrology, finance, medicine, and other fields, such as ecology, renewable energy, chemistry and history. Finally, five challenges and future works, such as the selection of the type of wavelet, selection of the adequate mother wavelet, selection of the scale, the combination between wavelet transform and machine learning algorithm and the interpretation of the obtained components, are also discussed.
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