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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Impedance Measurement and Detection Frequency Bandwidth, a Valid Island Detection Proposal for Voltage Controlled Inverters

Centre d’Innovació Tecnològica en Convertidors Estàtics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), Departament d’Enginyeria Elèctrica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, ETS d’Enginyeria Industrial de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 647, Pl. 2. 08028 Barcelona, Spain
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Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(6), 1146; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9061146
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 13 March 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 18 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Energy Applications in Houses, Smart Cities and Microgrids)
Anti-islanding detection methods have been part of a secure operation for distributed energy resource inverters, avoiding the creation of non-intentional energization when the mains are lost. These detection mechanisms were conceived historically for current-controlled inverters. New control possibilities have broken ground, and current- or voltage-controlled inverters are a reality; however, special attention must be paid to detection strategies when applied to the latter ones. This paper addresses two topics: it exposes the lack of effectiveness of those detection algorithms based on the voltage/frequency displacement concept under voltage-controlled inverters and evaluates the applicability limits of the others based on the impedance measurement (IM). The IM is presented as a valid mechanism to achieve the islanding detection, but the exploration of its limits drives the concept of detection frequency bandwidth (DFBW), introduced in this paper. The DFBW is suggested as a practical approach to select the proper injection frequency to measure. Therefore, an improved strategy based on the IM and DFBW is proposed to allow achieving the detection towards (non-)resonant loads considering low computational burden. The results were experimentally validated in a 90-kVA four-wire voltage-controlled inverter, offering detection times of less than 100 ms in any case. View Full-Text
Keywords: anti-islanding; voltage source converters; impedance measurement; microgrids anti-islanding; voltage source converters; impedance measurement; microgrids
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Llonch-Masachs, M.; Heredero-Peris, D.; Chillón-Antón, C.; Montesinos-Miracle, D.; Villafáfila-Robles, R. Impedance Measurement and Detection Frequency Bandwidth, a Valid Island Detection Proposal for Voltage Controlled Inverters. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 1146.

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