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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Impedance Measurement and Detection Frequency Bandwidth, a Valid Island Detection Proposal for Voltage Controlled Inverters

Centre d’Innovació Tecnològica en Convertidors Estàtics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), Departament d’Enginyeria Elèctrica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, ETS d’Enginyeria Industrial de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 647, Pl. 2. 08028 Barcelona, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(6), 1146;
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 13 March 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 18 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Energy Applications in Houses, Smart Cities and Microgrids)
Anti-islanding detection methods have been part of a secure operation for distributed energy resource inverters, avoiding the creation of non-intentional energization when the mains are lost. These detection mechanisms were conceived historically for current-controlled inverters. New control possibilities have broken ground, and current- or voltage-controlled inverters are a reality; however, special attention must be paid to detection strategies when applied to the latter ones. This paper addresses two topics: it exposes the lack of effectiveness of those detection algorithms based on the voltage/frequency displacement concept under voltage-controlled inverters and evaluates the applicability limits of the others based on the impedance measurement (IM). The IM is presented as a valid mechanism to achieve the islanding detection, but the exploration of its limits drives the concept of detection frequency bandwidth (DFBW), introduced in this paper. The DFBW is suggested as a practical approach to select the proper injection frequency to measure. Therefore, an improved strategy based on the IM and DFBW is proposed to allow achieving the detection towards (non-)resonant loads considering low computational burden. The results were experimentally validated in a 90-kVA four-wire voltage-controlled inverter, offering detection times of less than 100 ms in any case. View Full-Text
Keywords: anti-islanding; voltage source converters; impedance measurement; microgrids anti-islanding; voltage source converters; impedance measurement; microgrids
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Llonch-Masachs, M.; Heredero-Peris, D.; Chillón-Antón, C.; Montesinos-Miracle, D.; Villafáfila-Robles, R. Impedance Measurement and Detection Frequency Bandwidth, a Valid Island Detection Proposal for Voltage Controlled Inverters. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 1146.

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