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Open AccessArticle

Standards for Cyber-Physical Energy Systems—Two Case Studies from Sensor Technology

1
Department of Business Administration, The Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies (ASE), Romană Square No. 6, 010371 Bucharest, Romania
2
Institute of Smart Systems and Services, Pforzheim University of Applied Sciences, 75175 Pforzheim, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030435
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyber Physical Energy Systems)
Cyber-physical energy systems (CPES) describe a specialization of the cyber-physical system concept, in which energy systems are transformed into intelligent energy networks. These systems provide the basis for the realization of smart microgrids and smart grids. In the last decade, numerous research projects have intensively explored the fundamentals and modeling of CPES and validated them in pilot projects. In the meantime, more and more CPES solutions have been appearing on the market and the battle for the most suitable standards has begun. This paper gives an overview of the currently available standards for CPES sensor technologies and assesses the suitability for implementation. In two case studies in the application area of operational energy management in German companies, a sensor retrofitting is described—once with proprietary technology and once using the standards Long Range (LoRa) Wide Area Network and OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA). As a result, the shortcomings of the standards for their use in CPES are shown and discussed. OPC UA, which was originally developed for the manufacturing industry, turns out to be to be a suitable standard for a wide range of CPES implementations. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyber-physical energy systems; standards; low power wide area networks; long range wide area network; OPC unified architecture; energy management systems; sensors cyber-physical energy systems; standards; low power wide area networks; long range wide area network; OPC unified architecture; energy management systems; sensors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Krutwig, M.C.; Kölmel, B.; Tantau, A.D.; Starosta, K. Standards for Cyber-Physical Energy Systems—Two Case Studies from Sensor Technology. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 435. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030435

AMA Style

Krutwig MC, Kölmel B, Tantau AD, Starosta K. Standards for Cyber-Physical Energy Systems—Two Case Studies from Sensor Technology. Applied Sciences. 2019; 9(3):435. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030435

Chicago/Turabian Style

Krutwig, Michael C.; Kölmel, Bernhard; Tantau, Adrian D.; Starosta, Kejo. 2019. "Standards for Cyber-Physical Energy Systems—Two Case Studies from Sensor Technology" Appl. Sci. 9, no. 3: 435. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030435

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