Alkoxy-based consolidants are widely used for conservation of cultural heritage objects made from sandstones. Even if such consolidants were introduced into practice already in the 19th century, their performance has been enhanced by several modifications to their composition only recently. To obtain a relevant comparison of their application potential, both commercial (Remmers KSE OH and SurfaPore FX SB) and a self-developed particle-modified ethyl silicate consolidant supplemented with two phosphate-based ones, were assessed. Importantly, the potential toxicity of our novel consolidants was considered. Since the stone substrate should mimic the properties of naturally weathered stone, sandstone from the Msene quarry in Central Bohemia, characterized by a high porosity and relatively low mechanical strength, is selected. From practical point of view, the long-term durability of the consolidation effect is crucial compared to the initial level of consolidation. Regarding the determination of durability of the sandstone consolidation according to an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) accelerated weathering test, we performed mechanical tests in micro- (nanoindentation) and macroscale (drilling resistance measurements). The cohesion of the consolidant xerogels in the pores were determined by sorption experiments in gas phase. The durability of our TiO2
and ZnO particle-modified consolidants is superior to that of the commercial products. The aqueous diammonium hydrogen phosphate-based consolidant, which also shows exceptional durability, reveals itself to be a promising product for not only carbonate but also sandstone materials.
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