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Open AccessArticle

Autonomous Driving—A Crash Explained in Detail

1
Institute of Automotive Technology, Technical University of Munich, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85748 Garching b. München, Germany
2
Institute of Automatic Control, Technical University of Munich, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85748 Garching b. München, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(23), 5126; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9235126
Received: 2 October 2019 / Revised: 13 November 2019 / Accepted: 19 November 2019 / Published: 26 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Transportation Systems)
Since 2017, a research team from the Technical University of Munich has developed a software stack for autonomous driving. The software was used to participate in the Roborace Season Alpha Championship. The championship aims to achieve autonomous race cars competing with different software stacks against each other. In May 2019, during a software test in Modena, Italy, the greatest danger in autonomous driving became reality: A minor change in environmental influences led an extensively tested software to crash into a barrier at speed. Crashes with autonomous vehicles have happened before but a detailed explanation of why software failed and what part of the software was not working correctly is missing in research articles. In this paper we present a general method that can be used to display an autonomous vehicle disengagement to explain in detail what happened. This method is then used to display and explain the crash from Modena. Firstly a brief introduction into the modular software stack that was used in the Modena event, consisting of three individual parts—perception, planning, and control—is given. Furthermore, the circumstances causing the crash are elaborated in detail.By presented and explaining in detail which software part failed and contributed to the crash we can discuss further software improvements. As a result, we present necessary functions that need to be integrated in an autonomous driving software stack to prevent such a vehicle behavior causing a fatal crash. In addition we suggest an enhancement of the current disengagement reports for autonomous driving regarding a detailed explanation of the software part that was causing the disengagement. In the outlook of this paper we present two additional software functions for assessing the tire and control performance of the vehicle to enhance the autonomous. View Full-Text
Keywords: autonomous vehicle; autonomous system; intelligent transportation systems; vehicle crash; advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS); performance evaluation; path planning; automatic control autonomous vehicle; autonomous system; intelligent transportation systems; vehicle crash; advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS); performance evaluation; path planning; automatic control
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MDPI and ACS Style

Betz, J.; Heilmeier, A.; Wischnewski, A.; Stahl, T.; Lienkamp, M. Autonomous Driving—A Crash Explained in Detail. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 5126. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9235126

AMA Style

Betz J, Heilmeier A, Wischnewski A, Stahl T, Lienkamp M. Autonomous Driving—A Crash Explained in Detail. Applied Sciences. 2019; 9(23):5126. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9235126

Chicago/Turabian Style

Betz, Johannes; Heilmeier, Alexander; Wischnewski, Alexander; Stahl, Tim; Lienkamp, Markus. 2019. "Autonomous Driving—A Crash Explained in Detail" Appl. Sci. 9, no. 23: 5126. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9235126

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