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Review

A Review of Hydrogen Direct Injection for Internal Combustion Engines: Towards Carbon-Free Combustion

1
School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia
2
School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia
3
School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(22), 4842; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9224842
Received: 30 September 2019 / Revised: 24 October 2019 / Accepted: 6 November 2019 / Published: 12 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Combustion Diagnostics, Science and Technology)
A paradigm shift towards the utilization of carbon-neutral and low emission fuels is necessary in the internal combustion engine industry to fulfil the carbon emission goals and future legislation requirements in many countries. Hydrogen as an energy carrier and main fuel is a promising option due to its carbon-free content, wide flammability limits and fast flame speeds. For spark-ignited internal combustion engines, utilizing hydrogen direct injection has been proven to achieve high engine power output and efficiency with low emissions. This review provides an overview of the current development and understanding of hydrogen use in internal combustion engines that are usually spark ignited, under various engine operation modes and strategies. This paper then proceeds to outline the gaps in current knowledge, along with better potential strategies and technologies that could be adopted for hydrogen direct injection in the context of compression-ignition engine applications—topics that have not yet been extensively explored to date with hydrogen but have shown advantages with compressed natural gas. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrogen; internal combustion engine; compression ignition; dual-fuel engine; direct injection; high pressure gas jet; jet penetration hydrogen; internal combustion engine; compression ignition; dual-fuel engine; direct injection; high pressure gas jet; jet penetration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yip, H.L.; Srna, A.; Yuen, A.C.Y.; Kook, S.; Taylor, R.A.; Yeoh, G.H.; Medwell, P.R.; Chan, Q.N. A Review of Hydrogen Direct Injection for Internal Combustion Engines: Towards Carbon-Free Combustion. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 4842. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9224842

AMA Style

Yip HL, Srna A, Yuen ACY, Kook S, Taylor RA, Yeoh GH, Medwell PR, Chan QN. A Review of Hydrogen Direct Injection for Internal Combustion Engines: Towards Carbon-Free Combustion. Applied Sciences. 2019; 9(22):4842. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9224842

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yip, Ho L., Aleš Srna, Anthony C.Y. Yuen, Sanghoon Kook, Robert A. Taylor, Guan H. Yeoh, Paul R. Medwell, and Qing N. Chan 2019. "A Review of Hydrogen Direct Injection for Internal Combustion Engines: Towards Carbon-Free Combustion" Applied Sciences 9, no. 22: 4842. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9224842

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