Spatiotemporal fusion methods provide an effective way to generate both high temporal and high spatial resolution data for monitoring dynamic changes of land surface. But existing fusion methods face two main challenges of monitoring the abrupt change events and accurately preserving the spatial details of objects. The Flexible Spatiotemporal DAta Fusion method (FSDAF) was proposed, which can monitor the abrupt change events, but its predicted images lacked intra-class variability and spatial details. To overcome the above limitations, this study proposed a comprehensive and automated fusion method, the Enhanced FSDAF (EFSDAF) method and tested it for Landsat–MODIS image fusion. Compared with FSDAF, the EFSDAF has the following strengths: (1) it considers the mixed pixels phenomenon of a Landsat image, and the predicted images by EFSDAF have more intra-class variability and spatial details; (2) it adjusts the differences between Landsat images and MODIS images; and (3) it improves the fusion accuracy in the abrupt change area by introducing a new residual index (RI
). Vegetation phenology and flood events were selected to evaluate the performance of EFSDAF. Its performance was compared with the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM), the Spatial and Temporal Reflectance Unmixing Model (STRUM), and FSDAF. Results show that EFSDAF can monitor the changes of vegetation (gradual change) and flood (abrupt change), and the fusion images by EFSDAF are the best from both visual and quantitative evaluations. More importantly, EFSDAF can accurately generate the spatial details of the object and has strong robustness. Due to the above advantages of EFSDAF, it has great potential to monitor long-term dynamic changes of land surface.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited