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Ultrathin and Electrically Tunable Metamaterial with Nearly Perfect Absorption in Mid-Infrared

Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China
Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(16), 3358;
Received: 19 July 2019 / Revised: 10 August 2019 / Accepted: 12 August 2019 / Published: 15 August 2019
PDF [1567 KB, uploaded 15 August 2019]


Metamaterials integrated with graphene exhibit tremendous freedom in tailoring their optical properties, particularly in the infrared region, and are desired for a wide range of applications, such as thermal imaging, cloaking, and biosensing. In this article, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate an ultrathin (total thickness < λ 0 / 15 ) and electrically tunable mid-infrared perfect absorber based on metal–insulator–metal (MIM) structured metamaterials. The Q-values of the absorber can be tuned through two rather independent parameters, with geometrical structures of metamaterials tuning radiation loss (Qr) of the system and the material loss (tanδ) to further change mainly the intrinsic loss (Qa). This concise mapping of the structural and material properties to resonant mode loss channels enables a two-stage optimization for real applications: geometrical design before fabrication and then electrical tuning as a post-fabrication and fine adjustment knob. As an example, our device demonstrates an electrical and on-site tuning of ~5 dB change in absorption near the perfect absorption region. Our work provides a general guideline for designing and realizing tunable infrared devices and may expand the applications of perfect absorbers for mid-infrared sensors, absorbers, and detectors in extreme spatial-limited circumstances. View Full-Text
Keywords: metamaterial; perfect absorber; graphene; coupled-mode theory; tunable device metamaterial; perfect absorber; graphene; coupled-mode theory; tunable device

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Zou, Y.; Cao, J.; Gong, X.; Qian, R.; An, Z. Ultrathin and Electrically Tunable Metamaterial with Nearly Perfect Absorption in Mid-Infrared. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 3358.

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