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Open AccessArticle

Demand Side Management Effects on Substation Transformer Capacity Limits

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, California State University, Fresno, CA 93740, USA
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Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(16), 3266; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9163266
Received: 24 June 2019 / Revised: 2 August 2019 / Accepted: 7 August 2019 / Published: 9 August 2019
In high penetrations, demand side management (DMS) applications augment a substation power transformer’s load profile, which can ultimately affect the unit’s capacity limits. Energy storage (ES) applications reduce the evening peaking demand, while time-of-use rates incentivize end-users to charge electric vehicles overnight. The daily load profile is further augmented by high penetrations of photovoltaic (PV) systems, which reduce the midday demand. The resulting load profile exhibits a more flattened characteristic when compared to the historical cyclic profile. Although the initial impact of PV and ES applications may reduce a unit’s peak demand, long-term system planning and emergency conditions may require operation near or above the nameplate rating. Researchers have already determined that a flattened load profile excessively ages a unit’s dielectrics more rapidly. The focus of this research was to identify an approach for establishing new transformer capacity limits for units serving flattened load profiles with a high harmonic content. The analysis utilizes IEEE standards C57.91 and C57.110 to develop an aging model of a 50 MVA SPX Waukesha transformer. The results establish a guideline for determining transformer capacity limits for normal operation, long-term emergency operation, and short-term emergency operation when serving systems with high penetrations of DSM applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: demand side management; electric vehicles; energy storage; harmonic distortion; photovoltaic; power quality; power transformer; total harmonic distortion demand side management; electric vehicles; energy storage; harmonic distortion; photovoltaic; power quality; power transformer; total harmonic distortion
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MDPI and ACS Style

McBee, K.D.; Chong, J.; Rudraraju, P. Demand Side Management Effects on Substation Transformer Capacity Limits. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 3266. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9163266

AMA Style

McBee KD, Chong J, Rudraraju P. Demand Side Management Effects on Substation Transformer Capacity Limits. Applied Sciences. 2019; 9(16):3266. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9163266

Chicago/Turabian Style

McBee, Kerry D.; Chong, Jacquelyn; Rudraraju, Prasanth. 2019. "Demand Side Management Effects on Substation Transformer Capacity Limits" Appl. Sci. 9, no. 16: 3266. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9163266

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