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Open AccessArticle

Power Grid Reliability Evaluation Considering Wind Farm Cyber Security and Ramping Events

College of Electrical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China
Department of Electrical Engineering, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275, USA
College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410000, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(15), 3003;
Received: 15 June 2019 / Revised: 11 July 2019 / Accepted: 24 July 2019 / Published: 26 July 2019
The cybersecurity of wind farms is an increasing concern in recent years, and its impacts on the power system reliability have not been fully studied. In this paper, the pressing issues of wind farms, including cybersecurity and wind power ramping events (WPRs) are incorporated into a new reliability evaluation approach. Cyber–physical failures like the instantaneous failure and longtime fatigue of wind turbines are considered in the reliability evaluation. The tripping attack is modeled in a bilevel optimal power flow model which aims to maximize the load shedding on the system’s vulnerable moment. The time-varying failure rate of wind turbine is approximated by Weibull distribution which incorporates the service time and remaining life of wind turbine. Various system defense capacities and penetration rates of wind power are simulated on the typical reliability test system. The comparative and sensitive analyses show that power system reliability is challenged by the cybersecurity of wind farms, especially when the installed capacity of wind power continues to rise. The timely patching of network vulnerabilities and the life management of wind turbines are important measures to ensure the cyber–physical security of wind farms. View Full-Text
Keywords: cybersecurity; power system reliability; wind power ramps cybersecurity; power system reliability; wind power ramps
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, H.; Liu, J.; Liu, J.; Cui, M.; Liu, X.; Gao, H. Power Grid Reliability Evaluation Considering Wind Farm Cyber Security and Ramping Events. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 3003.

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