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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Effect of Sowing Dates on Fatty Acids and Phytosterols Patterns of Carthamus tinctorius L.

1
Laboratoire de Chimie Agroindustrielle, LCA, Université de Toulouse, INRA, 31030 Toulouse, France
2
Laboratory of Genetics, Diversity and Ecophysiology of Cereals UMR INRA/UCA 1095, University of Clermont Auvergne, 63006 Aubière, France
3
Université Paul Sabatier, IUT A, Département Génie Biologique, 32000 Auch, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(14), 2839; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9142839
Received: 7 June 2019 / Revised: 8 July 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 16 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Substances: Properties, Applications and or Toxicities)
Field experiments were carried out at the Regional Centre of Experimentation in Organic agriculture at Auch (near Toulouse, South west of France). Due to the high potential applications for its oil components such as fatty acids and phytosterols, safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is considered as an emerging crop. Safflower plants, as many other oil crops, are submitted to environmental stresses that modify seed composition. Nevertheless, few reports are available about the effects of environmental conditions on fatty acid and phytosterol compositions in safflower. Different rainfall supplies can be managed by delaying the sowing dates. In this study, fatty acid and phytosterol contents have been evaluated in safflower seeds cultivated at two sowing dates (conventional and late) that led to a differential of rainfall during seed development. At harvest, seeds were used for oil extraction. Fatty acid composition was performed by using GC-FID. A set of seeds was dehulled to separate the almond (embryo) and hull to release the extraction and measurement of sterol contents in the two compartments by GC-FID. A delay of sowing increased the content of all sterol categories but induced a significant decrease in fatty acids. The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids increased under a delaying sowing. The repartition of phytosterols was ¾ and ¼ of total sterols in the embryo and the hull, respectively. These results could make the use of hull (considered as waste) possible, help breeders to improve safflower oil composition and develop new industrial applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.); delay of sowing; sterols distribution; lipids accumulation; hull; seed safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.); delay of sowing; sterols distribution; lipids accumulation; hull; seed
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MDPI and ACS Style

Roche, J.; Mouloungui, Z.; Cerny, M.; Merah, O. Effect of Sowing Dates on Fatty Acids and Phytosterols Patterns of Carthamus tinctorius L.. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 2839.

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