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Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Recent Progress of Metal–Air Batteries—A Mini Review

Institute of Laser Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China
Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
Institute of Microstructure and Properties of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China
Oak Ridge National Lab, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(14), 2787;
Received: 3 June 2019 / Revised: 4 July 2019 / Accepted: 6 July 2019 / Published: 11 July 2019
With the ever-increasing demand for power sources of high energy density and stability for emergent electrical vehicles and portable electronic devices, rechargeable batteries (such as lithium-ion batteries, fuel batteries, and metal–air batteries) have attracted extensive interests. Among the emerging battery technologies, metal–air batteries (MABs) are under intense research and development focus due to their high theoretical energy density and high level of safety. Although significant progress has been achieved in improving battery performance in the past decade, there are still numerous technical challenges to overcome for commercialization. Herein, this mini-review summarizes major issues vital to MABs, including progress on packaging and crucial manufacturing technologies for cathode, anode, and electrolyte. Future trends and prospects of advanced MABs by additive manufacturing and nanoengineering are also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: metal–air batteries; laser processing; 3D printing metal–air batteries; laser processing; 3D printing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, C.; Yu, Y.; Niu, J.; Liu, Y.; Bridges, D.; Liu, X.; Pooran, J.; Zhang, Y.; Hu, A. Recent Progress of Metal–Air Batteries—A Mini Review. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 2787.

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