Next Article in Journal
Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) of Metal Gates for CMOS
Next Article in Special Issue
Hybrid Ionic Liquid–Silica Xerogels Applied in CO2 Capture
Previous Article in Journal
Estimating Maize-Leaf Coverage in Field Conditions by Applying a Machine Learning Algorithm to UAV Remote Sensing Images
Previous Article in Special Issue
Separation of N–C5H12–C9H20 Paraffins Using Boehmite by Inverse Gas Chromatography
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Conversion of Stearic Acid into Bio-Gasoline over Pd/ZSM-5 Catalysts with Enhanced Accessibility

1
Group of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Rey Juan Carlos University, c/ Tulipán s/n, 28933 Móstoles, Madrid, Spain
2
IMDEA Energy Institute, Avda. Ramón de la Sagra, 3, 28935 Móstoles, Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(11), 2386; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9112386
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 5 June 2019 / Accepted: 6 June 2019 / Published: 11 June 2019
Palladium supported on nanocrystalline ZSM-5 (n-ZSM-5, Si/Al = 32) and hierarchical ZSM-5 (h-ZSM-5) with different acidity (Si/Al = 33, 51, 122) were tested in the liquid-phase conversion of stearic acid under nitrogen atmosphere (6 bar). The incorporation of Pd into ZSM-5 zeolite increased significantly the share of gasoline in the reaction products due to the promotion by this metal of both decarboxylation and hydrogen transfer reactions. Likewise, the Pd nanoparticles dispersed over the zeolitic support favored the conversion of light olefins formed by end-chain cracking reactions into gasoline-range hydrocarbons according to an oligomerization/cyclization/aromatization pathway. Additionally, Pd/h-ZSM-5 gave rise to higher conversion and selectivity towards gasoline than Pd/n-ZSM-5, due mainly to the enhanced accessibility and improved Pd dispersion achieved when using the hierarchical zeolite. The decrease in the Si/Al atomic ratio in Pd/h-ZSM-5 samples resulted in a rise in the stearic acid conversion, although it was lower than expected. This finding denotes that, for supports with high acid sites concentration, the Pd availability became the limiting factor as the metal was loaded in similar amounts in all catalysts. Finally, the increase of the reaction temperature with the Pd/h-ZSM-5 (122) catalyst augmented both stearic acid conversion and gasoline selectivity, since it enhanced the conversion of the light olefins, formed as primary cracking products, into liquid hydrocarbons. Therefore, it can be concluded that Pd supported on hierarchical ZSM-5 zeolite is a convenient catalyst for obtaining bio-gasoline from oleaginous feedstock. View Full-Text
Keywords: bio-gasoline; stearic acid; Pd; ZSM-5; hierarchical zeolite bio-gasoline; stearic acid; Pd; ZSM-5; hierarchical zeolite
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Arroyo, M.; Briones, L.; Escola, J.M.; Serrano, D.P. Conversion of Stearic Acid into Bio-Gasoline over Pd/ZSM-5 Catalysts with Enhanced Accessibility. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 2386.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

1
Back to TopTop