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Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1516; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091516

Optimization of the Antioxidant Potentials of Red Pitaya Peels and Its In Vitro Skin Whitening Properties

1
Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Putra Infoport, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Department of Agriculture Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Department of Land Management, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Chemistry)
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Abstract

In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed for the optimization of the antioxidant potentials of red pitaya peels using independent variables: temperature (45–65 °C), ethanol concentration (70–90%, v/v) and time (80–120 min) through its responses, which were DPPH scavenging activity, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and beta-carotene bleaching (BCB) inhibition, respectively. In Vitro anti-tyrosinase and vitamin C content assays were carried out spectrophotometrically to determine the skin whitening efficacy of the optimized red pitaya peel extract. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was employed to identify the chemical constituents present in the optimized extract. The optimized conditions were ethanol 82% (v/v) for 103 min at 56 °C with values of 75.98% for DPPH, 7.45 mM Fe2+/g dry weight for FRAP and 93.29% for BCB respectively. The in vitro anti-tyrosinase and vitamin C content evaluation of the optimized extract showed a good tyrosinase inhibition of 66.29% with IC50 of 24.06 µg/mL while the vitamin C content was 5.45 mg/g of the extract. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of thirty phytoconstituents with l-(+)-ascorbic acid 2,6-dihexadecanoate being the most abundant with a peak area of 14.66%. This study evidently suggests the potential of red pitaya peels to be exploited as a natural skin whitening agent in the cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical formulations. View Full-Text
Keywords: red pitaya; anti-tyrosinase; vitamin C; antioxidant properties; response surface methodology; optimization red pitaya; anti-tyrosinase; vitamin C; antioxidant properties; response surface methodology; optimization
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Vijayakumar, R.; Abd Gani, S.S.; Zaidan, U.H.; Halmi, M.I.E. Optimization of the Antioxidant Potentials of Red Pitaya Peels and Its In Vitro Skin Whitening Properties. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 1516.

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