The current methods for evaluating the contact condition between concrete and lining were the ground penetrating radar (GPR) and the coring method. The penetration of radar electromagnetic waves was greatly affected by steel reinforcement and water, which often made the detection results of GPR unsatisfactory. A spectral analysis of the surface wave (SASW) method was used to evaluate the concrete-bedrock interface condition for hydraulic tunnel linings in this paper, since the impact elastic wave is less affected by steel bars and water content. An SASW implementation program based on fast Fourier transformation (FFT) was developed to analyze data from numerical simulations and field tests. Various models were studied to investigate the feasibility of using numerical analysis. For the first time, the study was employed to find out the influences of different receiver spacings and impact duration on the efficiency of detecting the existence of a weak layer underneath the concrete using the SASW method. On this basis, in-situ tests were carried out to verify the applicability in the field and results were verified by coring. In the research, the following results were found: (1) The finite element analysis results of different uniform or layered models showed that the SASW method could accurately identify the interface contact condition between the concrete lining and bedrock, especially the existence of voids; (2) when the receiver spacing was 1.0–1.5 times the thickness of the target object to be inspected, the quality of the collected signal data was the best; (3) under a certain reasonable range, the impact duration had an insignificant effect on the phase spectra and dispersion curves of a concrete-weak layer model; (4) in-situ SASW inspection could accurately tell whether the voids exist at the concrete-bedrock interface; and (5) the data processing program of the SASW method based on the MATLAB platform was accurate, convenient, and worth promoting.
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