Direct current (DC) distribution is one of the most important enabling technologies for the future development of microgrids, due to the ease of interfacing DC components (e.g., batteries, photovoltaic systems, and native DC loads) to the grid. In these power systems, the large use of controlled power converters suggests the need of a careful analysis of system stability, as it can be impaired in particular conditions. Indeed, in DC power systems, a destabilizing effect can arise due to the presence of inductor/capacitor (LC) filtering stages (installed for power quality requirements) and high-bandwidth controlled converters, behaving as constant power loads (CPLs). This issue is even more critical when the CPL is potentially fed only by the battery, causing the DC bus to be floating. In this context, Lyapunov theory constitutes a valuable method for studying the system stability of DC microgrids feeding CPLs. Such a theory demonstrates how the region of asymptotic stability (RAS) shrinks as the state of charge of the battery diminishes (i.e., as the bus voltage decreases). Once the accuracy of the RAS is validated by comparing it to the real basin of attraction (BA), numerically derived using continuation methods, a smart power management of the CPL can be proposed to preserve the system stability even in the presence of a low bus voltage. Indeed, a suitably designed criterion for limiting the load power can guarantee the invariance of RAS and BA for each equilibrium point. An electric vehicle was used herein as a particular DC microgrid for evaluating the performance derating given by the power limitation.
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