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Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(9), 257;

Overview of 3D Micro- and Nanocoordinate Metrology at PTB

Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kuang-Cha Fan
Received: 15 April 2016 / Revised: 29 August 2016 / Accepted: 30 August 2016 / Published: 12 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Applications of Coordinate Measuring Machines)
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Improved metrological capabilities for three-dimensional (3D) measurements of various complex micro- and nanoparts are increasingly in demand. This paper gives an overview of the research activities carried out by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the national metrology institute of Germany, to meet this demand. Examples of recent research advances in the development of instrumentation and calibration standards are presented. An ultra-precision nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine (NMM) has been upgraded with regard to its mirror corner, interferometers and angle sensors, as well as its weight compensation, its electronic controller, its vibration damping stage and its instrument chamber. Its positioning noise has been greatly reduced, e.g., from 1σ = 0.52 nm to 1σ = 0.13 nm for the z-axis. The well-known tactile-optical fibre probe has been further improved with regard to its 3D measurement capability, isotropic probing stiffness and dual-sphere probing styli. A 3D atomic force microscope (AFM) and assembled cantilever probes (ACPs) have been developed which allow full 3D measurements of smaller features with sizes from a few micrometres down to tens of nanometres. In addition, several measurement standards for force, geometry, contour and microgear measurements have been introduced. A type of geometry calibration artefact, referred to as the “3D Aztec artefact”, has been developed which applies wet-etched micro-pyramidal marks for defining reference coordinates in 3D space. Compared to conventional calibration artefacts, it has advantages such as a good surface quality, a well-defined geometry and cost-effective manufacturing. A task-specific micro-contour calibration standard has been further developed for ensuring the traceability of, e.g., high-precision optical measurements at microgeometries. A workpiece-like microgear standard embodying different gear geometries (modules ranging from 0.1 mm to 1 mm) has also been developed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. View Full-Text
Keywords: micro-coordinate measuring machine (micro-CMM); 3D coordinate metrology; microparts; traceability; calibration; CMM probe; physical standards; microhole; microgear; contour micro-coordinate measuring machine (micro-CMM); 3D coordinate metrology; microparts; traceability; calibration; CMM probe; physical standards; microhole; microgear; contour

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Dai, G.; Neugebauer, M.; Stein, M.; Bütefisch, S.; Neuschaefer-Rube, U. Overview of 3D Micro- and Nanocoordinate Metrology at PTB. Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 257.

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