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Article

Eye-Tracking in Interactive Virtual Environments: Implementation and Evaluation

1
Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 267/2, 611 37 Brno, Czech Republic
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Department of Educational Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Masaryk University, Arna Nováka 1, 602 00 Brno, Czech Republic
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Department of Information and Library Studies, Faculty of Arts, Masaryk University, Arna Nováka 1, 602 00 Brno, Czech Republic
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Institute of Psychology, Freie Universität Berlin, Kaiserswerther Straße 16-18, 14195 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Enrico Vezzetti
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 1027; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12031027
Received: 4 December 2021 / Revised: 10 January 2022 / Accepted: 17 January 2022 / Published: 19 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Topic Virtual Reality, Digital Twins, the Metaverse)
Not all eye-tracking methodology and data processing are equal. While the use of eye-tracking is intricate because of its grounding in visual physiology, traditional 2D eye-tracking methods are supported by software, tools, and reference studies. This is not so true for eye-tracking methods applied in virtual reality (imaginary 3D environments). Previous research regarded the domain of eye-tracking in 3D virtual reality as an untamed realm with unaddressed issues. The present paper explores these issues, discusses possible solutions at a theoretical level, and offers example implementations. The paper also proposes a workflow and software architecture that encompasses an entire experimental scenario, including virtual scene preparation and operationalization of visual stimuli, experimental data collection and considerations for ambiguous visual stimuli, post-hoc data correction, data aggregation, and visualization. The paper is accompanied by examples of eye-tracking data collection and evaluation based on ongoing research of indoor evacuation behavior. View Full-Text
Keywords: eye-tracking; virtual reality; eye-tracking algorithms; data collection; data visualization; dynamic environments; interactive environments eye-tracking; virtual reality; eye-tracking algorithms; data collection; data visualization; dynamic environments; interactive environments
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ugwitz, P.; Kvarda, O.; Juříková, Z.; Šašinka, Č.; Tamm, S. Eye-Tracking in Interactive Virtual Environments: Implementation and Evaluation. Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 1027. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12031027

AMA Style

Ugwitz P, Kvarda O, Juříková Z, Šašinka Č, Tamm S. Eye-Tracking in Interactive Virtual Environments: Implementation and Evaluation. Applied Sciences. 2022; 12(3):1027. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12031027

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ugwitz, Pavel, Ondřej Kvarda, Zuzana Juříková, Čeněk Šašinka, and Sascha Tamm. 2022. "Eye-Tracking in Interactive Virtual Environments: Implementation and Evaluation" Applied Sciences 12, no. 3: 1027. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12031027

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