# Analysis and Application of Lining Resistance to Water Pressure in Tunnel through Karst Cave

^{1}

^{2}

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Failure Mode of Grouting in Tunnels Crossing High-Pressure Karst Caves

#### 2.1. Failure Characteristics of Grouting in Tunnel Crossing the High-Pressure Karst Cave

#### 2.1.1. Establishment of the Numerical Calculation Model

^{3}, the applied vertical mean load was about 10 MPa, and the lateral pressure coefficient of rock was taken as 1.5. The calculation model is shown in Figure 1. The model was considered by the plane strain problem, and the modified Coulomb criterion including the tensile cutoff was used as the strength criterion for unit damage. The structural parameters of the surrounding rock level are shown in Table 1.

#### 2.1.2. Results of Numerical Calculations

#### 2.2. Influence of Cavity Location on the Effect of Grouting

#### 2.2.1. Establishment of Numerical Calculation Models

#### 2.2.2. Results of Numerical Calculations

#### 2.3. Influence of Grouting Range on the Effect of Grouting

#### 2.3.1. Establishment of Numerical Calculation Models

#### 2.3.2. Results of Numerical Calculations

## 3. Analysis of the Safety Thickness of Composite Surrounding Rock in Tunnels Crossing High-Pressure Karst Caves

#### 3.1. Failure Characteristics of Surrounding Rock with Grouting in Tunnel Crossing the High-Pressure Karst Cave

#### 3.1.1. Establishment of the Numerical Calculation Model

#### 3.1.2. Results of Numerical Calculations

#### 3.2. Analysis of Tunnel Safety Thickness for Different Calculation Cases

#### 3.2.1. Analysis of Safety Thickness of the Surrounding Rock

#### 3.2.2. Analysis of Safety Thickness of the Composite Surrounding Rock

#### 3.2.3. Analysis of Safety Thickness of the Composite Structure

## 4. Engineering Application

#### 4.1. Project Overview

#### 4.2. Construction Plan for Excavation Expansion

#### 4.3. Field Test Verification

## 5. Discussion

#### 5.1. Analysis of Damage Characteristics

#### 5.2. Verification of Model Reliability

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 2.**Numerical calculation results of the damage model of the grouted body under the influence of a water-rich cave: (

**a**–

**h**).

**Figure 4.**Schematic diagram of the numerical calculation model for different relative positions of tunnel and cave: (

**a**) tunnel under the cave; (

**b**) tunnel up through the cave; (

**c**) tunnel side crossing the cave; (

**d**) tunnel through the cave cluster.

**Figure 5.**Numerical calculation results of damage characteristics of grouting for different relative positions of the tunnel and the cave: (

**a**) tunnel under the cave; (

**b**) tunnel up through the cave; (

**c**) tunnel side crossing the cave; (

**d**) tunnel through the cave cluster.

**Figure 6.**Acoustic emission diagram of grout damage for different relative positions of the tunnel and the cave: (

**a**) tunnel under the cave; (

**b**) tunnel up through the cave; (

**c**) tunnel side crossing the cave; (

**d**) tunnel through the cave cluster.

**Figure 7.**Comparison of water pressure resistance of grouted stone bodies under different relative positions of the tunnel and the cave.

**Figure 8.**Schematic diagram of the numerical calculation model for different grouting ranges: (

**a**) grouting range of 30°; (

**b**) grouting range of 60°; (

**c**) grouting range of 90°; (

**d**) grouting range of 120°; (

**e**) grouting range of 180°; (

**f**) grouting range of 360°.

**Figure 9.**Numerical calculation results of damage characteristics of grouting for different grouting ranges: (

**a**) grouting range of 30°; (

**b**) grouting range of 60°; (

**c**) grouting range of 90°; (

**d**) grouting range of 120°; (

**e**) grouting range of 180°; (

**f**) grouting range of 360°.

**Figure 10.**Acoustic emission diagram of grout damage for different grouting ranges: (

**a**) grouting range of 30°; (

**b**) grouting range of 60°; (

**c**) grouting range of 90°; (

**d**) grouting range of 120°; (

**e**) grouting range of 180°; (

**f**) grouting range of 360°.

**Figure 13.**Numerical calculation results of the damage model of the composite surrounding rock under the influence of a water-rich cave: (

**a**–

**h**).

**Figure 17.**Trend of pressure with grout thickness at different locations in the numerical model: (

**a**) characteristics of water pressure variation with grouting thickness; (

**b**) characteristics of earth pressure variation with grouting thickness.

**Figure 19.**Construction diagram of CRD method and CD method. (

**a**) CRD method construction procedure diagram, in which excavation sequence installation ①–②–③–④–⑤–⑥ was carried out; (

**b**) CD method construction procedure diagram, in which the excavation sequence installation ①–②–③–④–⑤ was carried out.

**Figure 20.**Comparison of tunnel settlement caused by CRD method and CD method during excavation: (

**a**) comparison of vertical settlement of archtop; (

**b**) comparison of horizontal convergence of arch waist.

**Figure 21.**Diagram of the layout of the monitoring section measurement points and the installation of instruments on site: (

**a**) monitoring section measurement point layout diagram; (

**b**) on-site water pressure meter installation diagram; (

**c**) on-site rebar meter installation diagram; (

**d**) on-site earth pressure meter installation diagram.

**Figure 22.**Results of field measurements at monitoring sections: (

**a**) results of water pressure monitoring at section DK340+300; (

**b**) results of rebar stress monitoring at section DK340+300; (

**c**) results of earth pressure monitoring at section DK340+300; (

**d**) results of water pressure monitoring at section DK340+377; (

**e**) results of rebar stress monitoring at section DK340+377; (

**f**) results of earth pressure monitoring at section DK340+377.

**Figure 23.**The relationship between the acoustic emission energy and the convergence deformation of the measurement point with the water pressure of the karst cave for model 1.

**Figure 24.**The relationship between the acoustic emission energy and the convergence deformation of the measurement point with the water pressure of the karst cave for model 2.

**Figure 25.**Comparison of numerical calculation results and field monitoring results for different locations: (

**a**) water pressure results comparison graph; (

**b**) earth pressure results comparison graph.

Materials | Elastic Modulus (GPa) | Poisson’s Ratio | Angle of Internal Friction (°) | Permeability Coefficient (m/Day) | Cohesion (MPa) | Gravity (kN/m^{3}) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Rock | 0.48 | 0.3 | 35 | 0.044 | 0.05 | 20 |

Grouting | 2.0 | 0.35 | 35 | 0.00443 | 0.065 | 24 |

**Table 2.**Water pressure resistance of composite structures with different second lining thicknesses.

Thickness of Secondary Lining (m) | 0 | 0.4 | 0.8 | 1.0 | 1.2 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Critical water pressure (MPa) | 0.68 | 1.51 | 2.30 | 3.56 | 4.44 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Huang, M.; Li, J.; Yang, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Song, Y.
Analysis and Application of Lining Resistance to Water Pressure in Tunnel through Karst Cave. *Appl. Sci.* **2022**, *12*, 7605.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app12157605

**AMA Style**

Huang M, Li J, Yang Z, Zhang Z, Song Y.
Analysis and Application of Lining Resistance to Water Pressure in Tunnel through Karst Cave. *Applied Sciences*. 2022; 12(15):7605.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app12157605

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Huang, Mingli, Jiacheng Li, Ze Yang, Zhien Zhang, and Yuan Song.
2022. "Analysis and Application of Lining Resistance to Water Pressure in Tunnel through Karst Cave" *Applied Sciences* 12, no. 15: 7605.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app12157605