Deep Transfer Learning-Based Fault Diagnosis Using Wavelet Transform for Limited Data
- We adopt a pre-trained model, GoogLeNet, to classify industrial faults where the wavelet transformation converts one-dimensional time-series data into two-dimensional images of the time and frequency domains as the input. To deal with the constraints of the limited target samples, we first partially retrain the pre-trained model using the intermediate data that are conceptually related to the target domain, but less expensive, to collect the samples. We then retrain this relatively small portion of the pre-trained intermediate model using the target data.
- We extensively evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method and compare it with the state of the art. We use a Simulink model of a triplex reciprocating pump with different fault combinations and severity levels. The proposed method improves the generalization capability to classify the fault types while reducing the dependency on the training data of the source domain. In particular, we show the critical impact of the severity level on the fault classification accuracy.
2. Related Works
3. Wavelet-Based Deep Transfer Learning
3.1. Overall Framework
- Pre-trained model: We use the GoogLeNet trained on the ImageNet data set to classify 1000 categories of the typical images . GoogLeNet is a 22-layer CNN, a variant of the inception network developed at Google for image classification and object detection.
- Training on the intermediate domain: The CWT converts the time-series signals of the intermediate domain to the wavelet images capturing the time and frequency characteristics. The intermediate network has nearly the same architecture as the pre-trained model of the source domain. Some subsequent parameters of the network are updated using the intermediate samples, while we reduce the amount of learning parameters to avoid overfitting by fixing most of the parameters of the preceding layers. Once the network is trained, it is used as the general fault diagnosis model to input the wavelet images.
- Training on the target domain: Similarly, CWT converts the time-series signals of the target domain to the wavelet images in terms of the time and frequency domains. The limited wavelet images of the target domain are passed to the intermediate network to fine-tune a few subsequent layers of the network for the fault diagnosis of the target domain.
- Fault diagnosis stage: The target network is eventually utilized to classify various fault types based on the extracted feature information of the wavelet images.
3.2. Wavelet Transformation
3.3. Deep Transfer Learning
4. Evaluation Setup
4.1. Fault Data
- SVM: A machine learning technique known as SVM relies on the structural risk minimization problem . It can perform well in a high-dimensional non-linear problem with limited samples. Various signal processing techniques for the time and frequency domains are adopted to manually extract the features of the signals. We use various statistical metrics of the time domain analysis, including mean, standard deviation, root mean square, kurtosis, maximum-to-minimum difference, and signal median absolute deviation. Furthermore, the spectral analysis extracts useful features for predicting faults, such as bearings, gears, and engines . We consider the cumulative powers in the low-frequency range of 10–20 , mid-frequency range of 40–60 , and high-frequency range above 100 , as well as the frequency of the peak magnitude and spectral kurtosis peak. Note that spectrum condition indicators of various frequency ranges are based on the expected harmonics due to the specifications of the triplex reciprocating pump model, as we will discuss in Section 5.
- CNN: Figure 3 depicts the structure and the configuration of the CNN, consisting of 18 layers. The hidden layer mainly consists of the convolutional layer, the batch normalization layer, the activation layer, the sub-sampling layer, and the dropout layer. We adopt the rectified linear units (ReLUs) as an activation function to improve the training time. The output of the convolutional layer is fed to the max pooling of the sub-sampling layer. The softmax function is applied to the output of the last fully connected layer and returns the distribution of eight class labels corresponding to the fault types. The classification accuracy of the CNN considerably depends on the configuration parameters, including input image size, activation function, filter size, sampling method, and iteration number. The network parameter optimization method is adopted to optimize the configuration parameters for the classification accuracy .
5. Performance Evaluation
5.1. Fault Data Analysis
5.2. Diagnosis Performance Analysis
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Label||Classes||Number of Samples||Number of Samples|
|per Severity Level|
|cylinder leak and blocked inlet||3600||400|
|cylinder leak and bearing friction||3600||400|
|blocked inlet and bearing friction||3600||400|
|cylinder leak and blocked inlet and bearing friction||3600||400|
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Bang, J.; Di Marco, P.; Shin, H.; Park, P. Deep Transfer Learning-Based Fault Diagnosis Using Wavelet Transform for Limited Data. Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 7450. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12157450
Bang J, Di Marco P, Shin H, Park P. Deep Transfer Learning-Based Fault Diagnosis Using Wavelet Transform for Limited Data. Applied Sciences. 2022; 12(15):7450. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12157450Chicago/Turabian Style
Bang, Junseong, Piergiuseppe Di Marco, Hyejeon Shin, and Pangun Park. 2022. "Deep Transfer Learning-Based Fault Diagnosis Using Wavelet Transform for Limited Data" Applied Sciences 12, no. 15: 7450. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12157450