High-Performance Concrete Nanomodified with Recycled Rice Straw Biochar
- Theoretical and experimental verification of the compatibility of a nanomodifier aggregate of plant origin, namely, processed rice straw coal with the mineral components of concrete—Portland cement, inert aggregates—crushed stone and sand, and the establishment of rational qualitative and quantitative parameters that ensure the best compatibility;
- Identification of the main factors influencing the processes of structure formation and the formation of properties of the obtained stone materials based on agricultural waste;
- Analytical, mathematical, and structural-physical substantiating characteristics, understanding, and representation of the processes occurring during the formation of structures and the formation of properties at the micro and macro levels of such nanomodified concretes;
- Revealing the dependence of the properties of concretes on their nanomodification with processed rice straw coal, obtaining new knowledge about the formation of the quality of such concretes, developing existing theoretical and practical ideas about the effect of nanomodification with processed rice straw biochar on the properties of cement-based concretes, and determining the role of such modification in the formation of final properties of concrete.
2. Materials and Methods
- Temperature rising for 3 h;
- Isothermal exposure for 6 h;
- Cooling in a closed chamber for 15 h.
- At the dosing stage, VLTE-2100 scales (NPP Gosmetr, St. Petersburg, Russia) were used with an accuracy of 0.05 g to measure the required mass of concrete components;
- At the stage of loading into the concrete mixer, the sequence was as follows: water, cement, additive, sand, crushed stone;
- Then, the stage of mixing the components in a concrete mixer was carried out until homogenization and obtaining a homogeneous consistency of the mass;
- After homogenization, the mixture was unloaded into sample molds, which were subsequently installed on a laboratory vibration platform and compacted to the required state;
- After compaction, the samples were placed in a steaming chamber for 1 day, and then, after demoulding, they were kept in natural air conditions for 14 days;
- Further, the samples were tested on the IP-1000 hydraulic press (NPK TEHMASH LLC, Neftekamsk, Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia) and R-50 tensile testing machine (IMASH LLC, Armavir, Russia) in accordance with the requirements GOST 10180 “Concretes. Methods for strength determination using reference specimens”  and GOST 24452 “Concretes. Methods of prismatic, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio determination” ;
- Control and strength of concrete assessment was carried out in accordance with GOST 18105-2018 “Concretes. Rules for control and assessment of strength” .
3.1. Evaluation of the Microstructure and Chemical Composition of Rice Straw Biochar
3.2. Phenomenological Model of the Influence of the Dosage of Rice Straw Biochar Addition on the Strength and Deformation Characteristics of Heavy Concrete
- Comparison of the results of the improved concrete with the results of the base sample;
- Mechanical and physical testing of samples in a number of experiments;
- Numerical processing and prediction of results due to the performed mathematical calculations and the determination of mathematical dependence;
- Microscopic analysis of the structure of raw materials for a detailed presentation and obtaining new knowledge and development of existing ideas about the raw materials used, which is the initial component for improved concretes.
- A method for the disposal of agricultural waste has been proposed, and technology has been developed for use in concretes nanomodified with processed rice straw biochar.
- The main parameters of the raw materials used are determined, and dependencies are established as a result of experiments, which are the development of existing theories and new knowledge for the agricultural and construction branches of science.
- In the course of the research work, a sample of rice straw biochar modified by the electromagnetic method was obtained.
- It has been established that the most effective dosage is the addition of rice straw biochar in the amount of 6% by weight of cement.
- In a quantitative aspect, the improvement in the properties of concrete is expressed in the increase in its physical and mechanical characteristics and changes in deformability according to the results of the analysis of the stress-strain diagrams performed by us. The increase in characteristics was: for cubic compressive strength—19%, for prismatic compressive strength—22%, for axial tensile strength—25%, for tensile strength in bending—17%, for the elastic modulus—14%. The deformation characteristics decreased for deformation under axial compression—12%, for deformation under axial tension—24%.
- According to our preliminary estimates, introducing a finely dispersed additive of rice straw biochar modified by the electromagnetic method leads to a decrease in cement consumption by up to 10%.
- The results obtained demonstrated suitable compatibility of experimental data and the possibility of testing the technology in production conditions. The ecological and economic effects of the proposed technology and the manufactured material are noted.
- At the microscopic level, a study of the used raw materials, which is obtained as a result of processing, was carried out, and its parameters are at the same time a new material and a springboard for further research, as well as the empirical and scientific data already obtained, are recommended for further research and practical application.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Residue on a 45 µm sieve, %||3.5|
|Blaine specific surface area, cm2/g||3635|
|Normal density of cement paste, %||27.7|
|Beginning of setting, min||138|
|End of setting, min||187|
|Compressive strength at the age of 28 days, MPa||52.2|
|Flexural strength at the age of 28 days, MPa||8.5|
|Uniformity of volume change, mm||0|
|Mineralogical Composition, %||Chemical Composition, %|
|C3S||C2S||C3A||C4AF||MgO||SO3||Na2O + K2O||CaO||SiO2||LOI|
|Indicator Title||Cement, kg/m3||Water, L/m3||Crushed Stone, kg/m3||Sand, kg/m3||ρcm, kg/m3|
|Characteristics of Concrete||Change in % (∆) with the Content of Rice Straw Biochar Additive, wt %|
|εbR, mm/m × 10−3||0||−1||−5||−12||+2||+8|
|εbtR, mm/m × 10−4||0||−3||−10||−24||−4||+8|
|Eb = Ebt, GPa||0||+4||+6||+14||−2||−6|
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Beskopylny, A.N.; Stel’makh, S.A.; Shcherban’, E.M.; Mailyan, L.R.; Meskhi, B.; Smolyanichenko, A.S.; Beskopylny, N. High-Performance Concrete Nanomodified with Recycled Rice Straw Biochar. Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 5480. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12115480
Beskopylny AN, Stel’makh SA, Shcherban’ EM, Mailyan LR, Meskhi B, Smolyanichenko AS, Beskopylny N. High-Performance Concrete Nanomodified with Recycled Rice Straw Biochar. Applied Sciences. 2022; 12(11):5480. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12115480Chicago/Turabian Style
Beskopylny, Alexey N., Sergey A. Stel’makh, Evgenii M. Shcherban’, Levon R. Mailyan, Besarion Meskhi, Alla S. Smolyanichenko, and Nikita Beskopylny. 2022. "High-Performance Concrete Nanomodified with Recycled Rice Straw Biochar" Applied Sciences 12, no. 11: 5480. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12115480