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Energy Use in the EU Livestock Sector: A Review Recommending Energy Efficiency Measures and Renewable Energy Sources Adoption
 
 
Review

Energy Use in Greenhouses in the EU: A Review Recommending Energy Efficiency Measures and Renewable Energy Sources Adoption

1
Department of Natural Resources and Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural University of Athens, 75 Iera Odos Str., 11855 Athens, Greece
2
Institute of Bio-Economy & Agro-Technology, Centre of Research & Technology Hellas, Dimarchou Georgiadou 118, 38333 Volos, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Talal Yusaf and José Miguel Molina Martínez
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 5150; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12105150
Received: 21 March 2022 / Revised: 30 April 2022 / Accepted: 16 May 2022 / Published: 20 May 2022
This study conducts a review of energy use in the EU greenhouse agriculture sector. The studies presented illustrate that energy use in greenhouses is varied and generally dependent on fossil sources. High energy systems, which are more dominant in northern Europe, are generally heavily climate controlled and energy use is dominated by heating and cooling processes, while low energy systems, which are dominant in southern Europe, show a mixture of energy uses including heating, cooling, irrigation, lighting, fertilisers, and pesticides. Our review also provides a discussion of energy efficiency measures and renewable energy sources adoption for greenhouse production. Finally, our review indicates that accurate and reliable studies on energy use in greenhouse production are scarce and fragmented and that a range of differing methodologies are currently used to estimate on-farm energy use. The development of a comprehensive methodology and categorisation for measuring energy use in greenhouse agricultural production would, in our view, catalyse further studies in this sector, considerably improve our understanding of energy use in greenhouses and support the green transition. Based on this, this paper proposes a basic framework for measuring energy use in greenhouse agriculture. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy-use in agriculture; fossil-energy-free technologies and strategies; FEFTS; greenhouses; renewable energy; energy inputs energy-use in agriculture; fossil-energy-free technologies and strategies; FEFTS; greenhouses; renewable energy; energy inputs
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MDPI and ACS Style

Paris, B.; Vandorou, F.; Balafoutis, A.T.; Vaiopoulos, K.; Kyriakarakos, G.; Manolakos, D.; Papadakis, G. Energy Use in Greenhouses in the EU: A Review Recommending Energy Efficiency Measures and Renewable Energy Sources Adoption. Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 5150. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12105150

AMA Style

Paris B, Vandorou F, Balafoutis AT, Vaiopoulos K, Kyriakarakos G, Manolakos D, Papadakis G. Energy Use in Greenhouses in the EU: A Review Recommending Energy Efficiency Measures and Renewable Energy Sources Adoption. Applied Sciences. 2022; 12(10):5150. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12105150

Chicago/Turabian Style

Paris, Bas, Foteini Vandorou, Athanasios T. Balafoutis, Konstantinos Vaiopoulos, George Kyriakarakos, Dimitris Manolakos, and George Papadakis. 2022. "Energy Use in Greenhouses in the EU: A Review Recommending Energy Efficiency Measures and Renewable Energy Sources Adoption" Applied Sciences 12, no. 10: 5150. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12105150

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