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Article

Estimation of Tibiofemoral and Patellofemoral Joint Forces during Squatting and Kneeling

Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), 53757 Sankt Augustin, Germany
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hanatsu Nagano
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12010255
Received: 3 November 2021 / Revised: 21 December 2021 / Accepted: 23 December 2021 / Published: 28 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomechanical and Biomedical Factors of Knee Osteoarthritis)
This study examined the differences of knee joint forces between lowering to, or rising from squat, and typical final postures of squatting and kneeling. A biomechanical model of the lower limb was configured considering large knee flexion angles, multiple floor contact points, and the soft tissue contact between the thigh and calf. Inverse dynamics were used to determine muscle and compressive joint forces in the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints. Data were obtained from a group of 13 male subjects by means of 3D motion capturing, two force plates, a pressure-sensitive pad, and electromyography. During lowering into the kneeling/squatting positions and rising from them, the model exhibited the anticipated high maximum forces of 2.6 ± 0.39 body weight (BW) and 3.4 ± 0.56 BW in the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints. Upon attainment of the static terminal squatting and kneeling positions, the forces fell considerably, remaining within a range of between 0.5 and 0.7 BW for the tibiofemoral joint and 0.9 to 1.1 BW for the patellofemoral joint. The differences of the knee joint forces between the final postures of squatting and kneeling remained on average below 0.25 BW and were significant only for the tibiofemoral joint force. View Full-Text
Keywords: knee joint forces; high knee flexion; thigh-calf contact; inverse dynamics knee joint forces; high knee flexion; thigh-calf contact; inverse dynamics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Glitsch, U.; Heinrich, K.; Ellegast, R.P. Estimation of Tibiofemoral and Patellofemoral Joint Forces during Squatting and Kneeling. Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 255. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12010255

AMA Style

Glitsch U, Heinrich K, Ellegast RP. Estimation of Tibiofemoral and Patellofemoral Joint Forces during Squatting and Kneeling. Applied Sciences. 2022; 12(1):255. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12010255

Chicago/Turabian Style

Glitsch, Ulrich, Kai Heinrich, and Rolf P. Ellegast. 2022. "Estimation of Tibiofemoral and Patellofemoral Joint Forces during Squatting and Kneeling" Applied Sciences 12, no. 1: 255. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12010255

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