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Article

Are Torque-Driven Simulation Models of Human Movement Limited by an Assumption of Monoarticularity?

1
Department of Sport, Outdoor and Exercise Science, School of Human Sciences, University of Derby, Derbyshire DE22 1GB, UK
2
School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Zimi Sawacha
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 3852; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11093852
Received: 28 January 2021 / Revised: 18 March 2021 / Accepted: 20 April 2021 / Published: 24 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computer Simulation Modelling in Sport)
Subject-specific torque-driven computer simulation models employing single-joint torque generators have successfully simulated various sports movements with a key assumption that the maximal torque exerted at a joint is a function of the kinematics of that joint alone. This study investigates the effect on model accuracy of single-joint or two-joint torque generator representations within whole-body simulations of squat jumping and countermovement jumping. Two eight-segment forward dynamics subject-specific rigid body models with torque generators at five joints are constructed—the first model includes lower limb torques, calculated solely from single-joint torque generators, and the second model includes two-joint torque generators. Both models are used to produce matched simulations to a squat jump and a countermovement jump by varying activation timings to the torque generators in each model. The two-joint torque generator model of squat and countermovement jumps matched measured jump performances more closely (6% and 10% different, respectively) than the single-joint simulation model (10% and 24% different, respectively). Our results show that the two-joint model performed better for squat jumping and the upward phase of the countermovement jump by more closely matching faster joint velocities and achieving comparable amounts of lower limb joint extension. The submaximal descent phase of the countermovement jump was matched with similar accuracy by the two models (9% difference). In conclusion, a two-joint torque generator representation is likely to be more appropriate for simulating dynamic tasks requiring large joint torques and near-maximal joint velocities. View Full-Text
Keywords: computer simulation; joint torque; biarticular muscle computer simulation; joint torque; biarticular muscle
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lewis, M.G.C.; Yeadon, M.R.; King, M.A. Are Torque-Driven Simulation Models of Human Movement Limited by an Assumption of Monoarticularity? Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 3852. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11093852

AMA Style

Lewis MGC, Yeadon MR, King MA. Are Torque-Driven Simulation Models of Human Movement Limited by an Assumption of Monoarticularity? Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(9):3852. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11093852

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lewis, Martin G.C., Maurice R. Yeadon, and Mark A. King. 2021. "Are Torque-Driven Simulation Models of Human Movement Limited by an Assumption of Monoarticularity?" Applied Sciences 11, no. 9: 3852. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11093852

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