Design and Experimental Validation of Power Electric Vehicle Emulator for Testing Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) with Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) Capability
2. EV Emulator Needs
3. EV Emulator Design
3.2. DC/DC Converter
3.2.1. Hardware Design
3.2.2. Control Design
3.3. AC/DC Converter
3.3.1. Hardware Design
3.3.2. Control Design
- High-level controller: the higher level control is in charge of generating the appropriate active and reactive power references provided to the low level layers of the controller. The purpose is to lead the system to the desired goal: on the one hand, to maintain the desired DC voltage level by regulating the active power output with the voltage regulator box; on the other hand, to adjust the system’s reactive power reference by means of providing the needed reactive power output.
- Middle-level controller: the middle-level controller is responsible for saturating the power references in order to guarantee that the system remains in its operation working range and does not exceed its limits. Therefore, safety features and operating constraints such as temperature and over-voltages are considered to evaluate whether the desired power objectives are reached or not. Finally, from the power references, the current references are set.
- Low-level controller: the low-level controller is divided into two parts: the current controller that determines the control actions needed to follow the control current references; and the duty control system, in charge of the converter’s modulation technique.
- Hardware-level controller: the hardware level controls the power converter’s drive system, translating the control signals to the physical pulses of the converter.
3.4.1. Hardware Design
3.4.2. Control Design
- V2G: in this case, the grid analyzer can only measure the power consumed or returned by V2G charger. The control algorithm implemented in this context is an open loop control, which is shown in Figure 10a. This control loop is easy to implement and has a very good time response. However, it is not possible to determine the reactive power at the PCC, and problems such as an incorrect calibration or installation of the EVE could even increase the power consumption in the facility.
- PCC: the grid analyzer is located at the point where the facility is connected to the grid. Figure 10b shows the control algorithm, which is a closed loop control with a PI regulator to ensure zero error in steady-state operation. The problem is that the time response of this control is minimum 5–10 times the time step, so loads with an abrupt change of power can be over the limits for a few seconds.
- V2G and PCC: the two grid analyzers are installed, one in the V2G charger and the other one in the PCC. The control algorithm is shown in Figure 10c, which is based on the previous closed loop control with a PI regulator. However, in this case, the reactive power of the charger is measured and directly compensated at the output of the regulator. In order to avoid the integration of the error produced by the charger, the derivative of this measure is compensated in the input of the regulator. In this way, the controller achieves a better time response capability. However, it has to be highlighted that the use of two grid analyzers increases close to 2% the final price of the solution.
4. Experimental Results
4.1. Test Description
4.2. Manual Set-Point Adjustment
4.3. Load an EV Battery Profile
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Standard||CHAdeMO||GB/T||CCS Type 1||CCS Type 2||Tesla||ChaoJi|
|Maximum Voltage (V)||1000||750||600||900||500||1500|
|Maximum Current (A)||400||250||400||400||631||600|
|Maximum Power (kW)||400||185||200||350||250||900|
|Nominal Power||50 kW|
|Internal DC-link voltage||700 V|
|Switching frequency||20 kHz|
|Control frequency||20 kHz|
|Nominal RMS phase voltage||230 V|
|Nominal RMS phase current||80 A|
|I ripple||1% Inom|
|Nominal frequency||50 Hz|
|Output voltage range||50–500 V|
|Output current range||−100 A to 100 A|
|Maximum voltage ripple||<2% Vmax|
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García-Martínez, E.; Muñoz-Cruzado-Alba, J.; Sanz-Osorio, J.F.; Perié, J.M. Design and Experimental Validation of Power Electric Vehicle Emulator for Testing Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) with Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) Capability. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 11496. https://doi.org/10.3390/app112311496
García-Martínez E, Muñoz-Cruzado-Alba J, Sanz-Osorio JF, Perié JM. Design and Experimental Validation of Power Electric Vehicle Emulator for Testing Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) with Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) Capability. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(23):11496. https://doi.org/10.3390/app112311496Chicago/Turabian Style
García-Martínez, Eduardo, Jesús Muñoz-Cruzado-Alba, José F. Sanz-Osorio, and Juan Manuel Perié. 2021. "Design and Experimental Validation of Power Electric Vehicle Emulator for Testing Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) with Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) Capability" Applied Sciences 11, no. 23: 11496. https://doi.org/10.3390/app112311496