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Article

Integration of Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 Data with the G-SMOTE Technique for Boosting Land Cover Classification Accuracy

1
Remote Sensing and GIS Research Centre, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran 653641255, Iran
2
Research Center for Digital Mountain and Remote Sensing Application, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China
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University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
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Department of Remote Sensing and GIS, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51666, Iran
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Department of Geography, Humboldt University of Berlin, 12489 Berlin, Germany
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Department of Infrastructure Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and IT, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia
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Institute of Advanced Research in Artificial Intelligence (IARAI), Landstraßer Hauptstraße 5, 1030 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hyung-Sup Jung
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10309; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112110309
Received: 15 September 2021 / Revised: 27 October 2021 / Accepted: 29 October 2021 / Published: 3 November 2021
The importance of Land Cover (LC) classification is recognized by an increasing number of scholars who employ LC information in various applications (i.e., address global climate change and achieve sustainable development). However, studying the roles of balancing data, image integration, and performance of different machine learning algorithms in various landscapes has not received as much attention from scientists. Therefore, the present study investigates the performance of three frequently used Machine Learning (ML) algorithms, including Extreme Learning Machines (ELM), Support Vector Machines (SVM), and Random Forest (RF) in LC mapping at six different landscapes. Moreover, the Geometric Synthetic Minority Over-sampling Technique (G-SMOTE) was adopted to deal with the class imbalance problem. In this work, the time-series of Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data were integrated to improve LC mapping accuracy, taking advantage of both data. Moreover, Support Vector Machine-Recursive Feature Elimination (SVM-RFE) was implemented to distinguish the most informative features. Based on the results, the RF integrated with G-SMOTE showed the best result for four landscapes (coastal, cropland, desert, and semi-arid). SVM integrated with G-SMOTE had the highest accuracy in the remaining two landscapes (plain and mountain). Applied ML algorithms showed good performances in various landscapes, ranging Overall Accuracy (OA) from 85% to 93% for RF, 83% to 94% for SVM, and 84% to 92% for ELM. The outcomes exhibit that although applying G-SMOTE may slightly decrease OA values, it generally boosts the results of LC classification accuracies in various landscapes, particularly for minority classes. View Full-Text
Keywords: Machine Learning (ML); Geometric Synthetic Minority Over-Sampling Technique (G-SMOTE); land cover mapping; European Space Agency (ESA); class imbalance problem Machine Learning (ML); Geometric Synthetic Minority Over-Sampling Technique (G-SMOTE); land cover mapping; European Space Agency (ESA); class imbalance problem
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ebrahimy, H.; Naboureh, A.; Feizizadeh, B.; Aryal, J.; Ghorbanzadeh, O. Integration of Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 Data with the G-SMOTE Technique for Boosting Land Cover Classification Accuracy. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 10309. https://doi.org/10.3390/app112110309

AMA Style

Ebrahimy H, Naboureh A, Feizizadeh B, Aryal J, Ghorbanzadeh O. Integration of Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 Data with the G-SMOTE Technique for Boosting Land Cover Classification Accuracy. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(21):10309. https://doi.org/10.3390/app112110309

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ebrahimy, Hamid, Amin Naboureh, Bakhtiar Feizizadeh, Jagannath Aryal, and Omid Ghorbanzadeh. 2021. "Integration of Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 Data with the G-SMOTE Technique for Boosting Land Cover Classification Accuracy" Applied Sciences 11, no. 21: 10309. https://doi.org/10.3390/app112110309

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