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Lower-Limb Exosuits for Rehabilitation or Assistance of Human Movement: A Systematic Review

ELISAVA Barcelona School of Design and Engineering, 08002 Barcelona, Spain
Biomechanical Engineering Lab, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Research Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu, 08950 Esplugues de Llobregat, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Philip Fink
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(18), 8743;
Received: 30 August 2021 / Revised: 14 September 2021 / Accepted: 15 September 2021 / Published: 19 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assistive Technology: Biomechanics in Rehabilitation Engineering)
Background: The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the technological state-of-the-art of exosuits and the clinical results obtained when applied to users with mobility impairment. Methods: Searches are carried out in the COCHRANE, PubMed, IEEE Xplore and MEDLINE databases. Titles, abstracts and full texts are screened for inclusion criteria. Technological and clinical data are extracted. The quality of the studies is evaluated via a study quality assessment tool. Results: 19 studies are identified as relevant. Active (47%) and passive exosuits (53%) are used. Most are used untethered (84%), accommodating the demand of mobility. No study reports power consumption, which is important for dimensioning power systems. Fields of applications are post-stroke (79%), osteoarthritis (16%) and post-trauma (5%). Mostly the ankle joint is addressed (57%), while less studies address multiple joints (21%). The outcomes of clinical evaluations of lower-limb exosuits with patients suffering from mobility impairments are positive in the correction of gait pattern and reducing metabolic energy consumption during hemiparetic walking. Conclusions: Lower-limb exosuits for clinical applications are still facing technological challenges. Fields of application are limited to stroke, osteoarthritis and trauma. While clinical outcomes are overall positive, improvements in the study protocols are suggested. View Full-Text
Keywords: exosuit; exoskeleton; rehabilitation; stroke exosuit; exoskeleton; rehabilitation; stroke
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MDPI and ACS Style

Koch, M.A.; Font-Llagunes, J.M. Lower-Limb Exosuits for Rehabilitation or Assistance of Human Movement: A Systematic Review. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 8743.

AMA Style

Koch MA, Font-Llagunes JM. Lower-Limb Exosuits for Rehabilitation or Assistance of Human Movement: A Systematic Review. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(18):8743.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Koch, Martin A., and Josep M. Font-Llagunes. 2021. "Lower-Limb Exosuits for Rehabilitation or Assistance of Human Movement: A Systematic Review" Applied Sciences 11, no. 18: 8743.

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