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Review

Biomedical Effects of the Phytonutrients Turmeric, Garlic, Cinnamon, Graviola, and Oregano: A Comprehensive Review

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Biochemistry & Pharmacology Department, San Juan Bautista School of Medicine, Urb Turabo Gardens PR-172, Caguas, PR 00726, USA
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Chemistry Department, University of Puerto Rico-Mayagüez Campus, PR-108, Mayagüez, PR 00682, USA
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Neuroscience Department, School of Medicine, Universidad Central del Caribe, Ave. Laurel 100, Sta. Juanita, Bayamón, PR 00960, USA
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Biochemistry Department, School of Medicine, Universidad Central del Caribe, Ave. Laurel 100, Sta. Juanita, Bayamón, PR 00960, USA
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Biology Department, University of Puerto Rico-Rio Piedras Campus, Av. Universidad Ste. 1401, San Juan, PR 00925, USA
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Chemistry Department, University of Puerto Rico-Rio Piedras Campus, Av. Universidad Ste. 1401, San Juan, PR 00925, USA
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School of Public Health, University of Puerto Rico-Medical Sciences Campus, Paseo Dr. José Celso Barbosa, San Juan, PR 00921, USA
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School of Natural Sciences & Technology, Universidad Ana G. Méndez-Gurabo Campus, Carr. # 189 Km 3.3, Gurabo, PR 00778, USA
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Biology Department, University of Puerto Rico-Bayamón Campus, Industrial Minillas 170, 63, PR-174, Bayamón, PR 00959, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Piotr Latocha, Artur Wiktor, Barbara Łata and Monica Gallo
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(18), 8477; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188477
Received: 12 June 2021 / Revised: 23 August 2021 / Accepted: 1 September 2021 / Published: 13 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Molecules in Food)
Phytonutrients are plant foods that contain many natural bioactive compounds, called phytochemicals, which show specific biological activities. These phytonutrients and their phytochemicals may play an important role in health care maintaining normal organism functions (as preventives) and fighting against diseases (as therapeutics). Phytonutrients’ components are the primary metabolites (i.e., proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids) and phytochemicals or secondary metabolites (i.e., phenolics, alkaloids, organosulfides, and terpenes). For years, several phytonutrients and their phytochemicals have demonstrated specific pharmacological and therapeutic effects in human health such as anticancer, antioxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, and immune response. This review summarizes the effects of the most studied or the most popular phytonutrients (i.e., turmeric, garlic, cinnamon, graviola, and oregano) and any reported contraindications. This article also presents the calculated physicochemical properties of the main phytochemicals in the selected phytonutrients using Lipinski’s, Veber’s, and Ghose’s rules. Based on our revisions for this article, all these phytonutrients have consistently shown great potential as preventives and therapeutics on many diseases in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: phytonutrients; phytochemicals; turmeric; garlic; cinnamon; graviola; oregano; Lipinski’s rule of 5; Veber’s rules; Ghose filter phytonutrients; phytochemicals; turmeric; garlic; cinnamon; graviola; oregano; Lipinski’s rule of 5; Veber’s rules; Ghose filter
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MDPI and ACS Style

Delgado, Y.; Cassé, C.; Ferrer-Acosta, Y.; Suárez-Arroyo, I.J.; Rodríguez-Zayas, J.; Torres, A.; Torres-Martínez, Z.; Pérez, D.; González, M.J.; Velázquez-Aponte, R.A.; Andino, J.; Correa-Rodríguez, C.; Franco, J.C.; Milán, W.; Rosario, G.; Velázquez, E.; Vega, J.; Colón, J.; Batista, C. Biomedical Effects of the Phytonutrients Turmeric, Garlic, Cinnamon, Graviola, and Oregano: A Comprehensive Review. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 8477. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188477

AMA Style

Delgado Y, Cassé C, Ferrer-Acosta Y, Suárez-Arroyo IJ, Rodríguez-Zayas J, Torres A, Torres-Martínez Z, Pérez D, González MJ, Velázquez-Aponte RA, Andino J, Correa-Rodríguez C, Franco JC, Milán W, Rosario G, Velázquez E, Vega J, Colón J, Batista C. Biomedical Effects of the Phytonutrients Turmeric, Garlic, Cinnamon, Graviola, and Oregano: A Comprehensive Review. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(18):8477. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188477

Chicago/Turabian Style

Delgado, Yamixa, Céline Cassé, Yancy Ferrer-Acosta, Ivette J. Suárez-Arroyo, José Rodríguez-Zayas, Anamaris Torres, Zally Torres-Martínez, Daraishka Pérez, Michael J. González, Ricardo A. Velázquez-Aponte, Josué Andino, Clarissa Correa-Rodríguez, Jean C. Franco, Wandaliz Milán, Gabriela Rosario, Eddian Velázquez, Jaisy Vega, Janmary Colón, and Christopher Batista. 2021. "Biomedical Effects of the Phytonutrients Turmeric, Garlic, Cinnamon, Graviola, and Oregano: A Comprehensive Review" Applied Sciences 11, no. 18: 8477. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188477

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