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Article

A Review on Security of Smart Farming and Precision Agriculture: Security Aspects, Attacks, Threats and Countermeasures

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Cyber Science Lab, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
2
School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
3
Geography, Environment and Geomatics, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Gregory Epiphaniou and Carsten R. Maple
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(16), 7518; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167518
Received: 28 May 2021 / Revised: 30 July 2021 / Accepted: 1 August 2021 / Published: 16 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art of Cybersecurity)
In recent years, Smart Farming (SF) and Precision Agriculture (PA) have attracted attention from both the agriculture industry as well as the research community. Altogether, SF and PA aim to help farmers use inputs (such as fertilizers and pesticides) more efficiently through using Internet of Things (IoT) devices, but in doing so, they create new security threats that can defeat this purpose in the absence of adequate awareness and proper countermeasures. A survey on different security-related challenges is required to raise awareness and pave they way for further research in this area. In this paper, we first itemize the security aspects of SF and PA. Next, we review the types of cyber attacks that can violate each of these aspects. Accordingly, we present a taxonomy on cyber-threats to SF and PA on the basis of their relations to different stages of Cyber-Kill Chain (CKC). Among cyber-threats, we choose Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs) for further study. Finally, we studied related risk mitigation strategies and countermeasure, and developed a future road map for further study in this area. This paper’s main contribution is a categorization of security threats within the SF/PA areas and provide a taxonomy of security threats for SF environments so that we may detect the behavior of APT attacks and any other security threat in SF and PA environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: smart farming; precision agriculture; cyber-threats; advanced persistent threats; cyber-kill chain; security threats smart farming; precision agriculture; cyber-threats; advanced persistent threats; cyber-kill chain; security threats
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yazdinejad, A.; Zolfaghari, B.; Azmoodeh, A.; Dehghantanha, A.; Karimipour, H.; Fraser, E.; Green, A.G.; Russell, C.; Duncan, E. A Review on Security of Smart Farming and Precision Agriculture: Security Aspects, Attacks, Threats and Countermeasures. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 7518. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167518

AMA Style

Yazdinejad A, Zolfaghari B, Azmoodeh A, Dehghantanha A, Karimipour H, Fraser E, Green AG, Russell C, Duncan E. A Review on Security of Smart Farming and Precision Agriculture: Security Aspects, Attacks, Threats and Countermeasures. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(16):7518. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167518

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yazdinejad, Abbas, Behrouz Zolfaghari, Amin Azmoodeh, Ali Dehghantanha, Hadis Karimipour, Evan Fraser, Arthur G. Green, Conor Russell, and Emily Duncan. 2021. "A Review on Security of Smart Farming and Precision Agriculture: Security Aspects, Attacks, Threats and Countermeasures" Applied Sciences 11, no. 16: 7518. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167518

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