The article discusses the possibility of improving the design of the turbine of a hydraulic drilling machine for drilling wells in very hard rocks and at considerable depths (5000–12,000 m). The analysis of the results of studies on the technical and technological characteristics of downhole drilling motors showed that it is impossible to ensure stable operation due to the limitation on the operating temperature, while with an increase in the flow rate of the drilling fluid, they do not provide the required power on the spindle shaft, and cannot reach high-speed drilling. In such conditions, turbodrills with a significant change in the profile of the stator and rotor blades and a reinforced support unit are most suitable. The paper presents an invariant mathematical model, which made it possible to determine the optimal geometric parameters based on preselected boundary conditions and the main performance characteristics of the turbine being developed. The results obtained were tested by the finite element method, which showed a convergence of 12.5%. At the same time, zones with the lowest and highest flow rates were identified. Additionally, this paper presents a comparative analysis of the obtained hydraulic turbine with turbodrills of the TSSH-178T and Neyrfor TTT 2 7/8 brands. In comparison with the domestic turbodrill, the developed turbine design shows a 13-fold reduction in its length and a 3-fold reduction in torque, provided that the maximum power is increased by 1.5 times. In comparison with the foreign analog, there is a decrease in length by 8.5 times, an increase in torque by 5 times, and in maximum power by 6.5 times.
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