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On the Possibility to Use the Charge Imbalance in Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy: A New Online, In Vivo, Noninvasive Dose Monitoring System
Review

Co-Adjuvant Nanoparticles for Radiotherapy Treatments of Oncological Diseases

1
Department of Materials Science, University of Milano-Bicocca, via R. Cozzi 55, I-20125 Milano, Italy
2
Institute of Physics of the Czech Academy of Sciences (FZU), Cukrovarnická 10/112, 162 00 Prague, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Salvatore Gallo
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(15), 7073; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11157073
Received: 21 June 2021 / Revised: 27 July 2021 / Accepted: 28 July 2021 / Published: 30 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Medical Physics)
Nanomedicine is emerging as promising approach for the implementation of oncological methods. In this review, we describe the most recent methods exploiting heavy nanoparticles and hybrid nanomaterials aiming at improving the traditional X-rays-based treatments. High-Z nanoparticles are proposed as radiosensitizers due to their ability to stop the ionizing radiation and to increase the locally delivered therapeutic dose. Other nanoparticles working as catalysts can generate reactive oxygen species upon X-rays exposure. Thanks to their high toxicity and reactivity, these species promote DNA cancer cells damage and apoptosis. Hybrid nanoparticles, composed by scintillators coupled to organic molecules, are suitable in X-rays activated photodynamic therapy. This work highlights the roles played by the diverse nanoparticles, upon ionizing radiation irradiation, according to their physico-chemical properties, surface functionalization, and targeting strategies. The description of nanoparticle qualities demanded by the oncological nanomedicine is presented in relation to the processes occurring in biological medium when X-ray radiation interacts with heavy nanoparticles, including the scintillation mechanisms, the stopping power amplification, and the disputed modeling of the effective deposit of energy within nanomaterials. The comprehension of these issues in nanomedicine drives the strategies of nanoparticles engineering and paves the way for the development of advanced medical therapies. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticles; scintillation; ionizing energy deposition; radiotherapy; photodynamic therapy; singlet oxygen nanoparticles; scintillation; ionizing energy deposition; radiotherapy; photodynamic therapy; singlet oxygen
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MDPI and ACS Style

Crapanzano, R.; Secchi, V.; Villa, I. Co-Adjuvant Nanoparticles for Radiotherapy Treatments of Oncological Diseases. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 7073. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11157073

AMA Style

Crapanzano R, Secchi V, Villa I. Co-Adjuvant Nanoparticles for Radiotherapy Treatments of Oncological Diseases. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(15):7073. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11157073

Chicago/Turabian Style

Crapanzano, Roberta, Valeria Secchi, and Irene Villa. 2021. "Co-Adjuvant Nanoparticles for Radiotherapy Treatments of Oncological Diseases" Applied Sciences 11, no. 15: 7073. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11157073

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