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Article

Validation of Selected Optical Methods for Assessing Polyethylene (PE) Liners Used in High Pressure Vessels for Hydrogen Storage

1
Department of Mechanics, Materials and Biomedical Engineering, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland
2
Department of Polymer Engineering, University of Leoben, 8700 Leoben, Austria
3
Keyence International, 2800 Mechelen, Belgium
4
RAIGI SA, 28310 Rouvray-Saint-Denis, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giuseppe Lacidogna
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 5667; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11125667
Received: 13 May 2021 / Revised: 14 June 2021 / Accepted: 15 June 2021 / Published: 18 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Nondestructive Testing (NDT))
A polyethylene (PE) liner is the basic element in high-pressure type 4 composite vessels designed for hydrogen or compressed natural gas (CNG) storage systems. Liner defects may result in the elimination of the whole vessel from use, which is very expensive, both at the manufacturing and exploitation stage. The goal is, therefore, the development of efficient non-destructive testing (NDT) methods to test a liner immediately after its manufacturing, before applying a composite reinforcement. It should be noted that the current regulations, codes and standards (RC&S) do not specify liner testing methods after manufacturing. It was considered especially important to find a way of locating and assessing the size of air bubbles and inclusions, and the field of deformations in liner walls. It was also expected that these methods would be easily applicable to mass-produced liners. The paper proposes the use of three optical methods, namely, visual inspection, digital image correlation (DIC), and optical fiber sensing based on Bragg gratings (FBG). Deformation measurements are validated with finite element analysis (FEA). The tested object was a prototype of a hydrogen liner for high-pressure storage (700 bar). The mentioned optical methods were used to identify defects and measure deformations. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-destructive evaluation; PE liner; high-pressure vessel; hydrogen storage; optical fiber sensors; digital image correlation non-destructive evaluation; PE liner; high-pressure vessel; hydrogen storage; optical fiber sensors; digital image correlation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gąsior, P.; Wachtarczyk, K.; Błachut, A.; Kaleta, J.; Yadav, N.; Ozga, M.; Baron, A. Validation of Selected Optical Methods for Assessing Polyethylene (PE) Liners Used in High Pressure Vessels for Hydrogen Storage. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 5667. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11125667

AMA Style

Gąsior P, Wachtarczyk K, Błachut A, Kaleta J, Yadav N, Ozga M, Baron A. Validation of Selected Optical Methods for Assessing Polyethylene (PE) Liners Used in High Pressure Vessels for Hydrogen Storage. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(12):5667. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11125667

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gąsior, Paweł, Karol Wachtarczyk, Aleksander Błachut, Jerzy Kaleta, Neha Yadav, Marcin Ozga, and Amelie Baron. 2021. "Validation of Selected Optical Methods for Assessing Polyethylene (PE) Liners Used in High Pressure Vessels for Hydrogen Storage" Applied Sciences 11, no. 12: 5667. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11125667

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