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Protective Measurement—A New Quantum Measurement Paradigm: Detailed Description of the First Realization

Knowledge of Quantum Hidden Variables Enables Backwards-In-Time Signaling

by 1,†, 2,*,†, 3,† and 4,†
Center for Quantum Information Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beersheba 8410501, Israel
Faculty of Engineering, Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan 5290002, Israel
Dip. Fisica and INFN Sez. Pavia, University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, Italy
Theoretical Physics Division, Rudjer Bošković Institute, P.O.B. 180, HR-10002 Zagreb, Croatia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Authors are listed in alphabetical ordering.
Academic Editors: Allen M. Barnett and Maria Bondani
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 4477;
Received: 26 March 2021 / Revised: 25 April 2021 / Accepted: 10 May 2021 / Published: 14 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Optics for Fundamental Quantum Mechanics II)
Bell’s theorem implies that any completion of quantum mechanics which uses hidden variables (that is, preexisting values of all observables) must be nonlocal in the Einstein sense. This customarily indicates that knowledge of the hidden variables would permit superluminal communication. Such superluminal signaling, akin to the existence of a preferred reference frame, is to be expected. However, here we provide a protocol that allows an observer with knowledge of the hidden variables to communicate with her own causal past, without superluminal signaling. That is, such knowledge would contradict causality, irrespectively of the validity of relativity theory. Among the ways we propose for bypassing the paradox there is the possibility of hidden variables that change their values even when the state does not, and that means that signaling backwards in time is prohibited in Bohmian mechanics. View Full-Text
Keywords: causality; contextuality; hidden variables causality; contextuality; hidden variables
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MDPI and ACS Style

Carmi, A.; Cohen, E.; Maccone, L.; Nikolić, H. Knowledge of Quantum Hidden Variables Enables Backwards-In-Time Signaling. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 4477.

AMA Style

Carmi A, Cohen E, Maccone L, Nikolić H. Knowledge of Quantum Hidden Variables Enables Backwards-In-Time Signaling. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(10):4477.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Carmi, Avishy, Eliahu Cohen, Lorenzo Maccone, and Hrvoje Nikolić. 2021. "Knowledge of Quantum Hidden Variables Enables Backwards-In-Time Signaling" Applied Sciences 11, no. 10: 4477.

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