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Control-Based 4D Printing: Adaptive 4D-Printed Systems

School of Engineering, Deakin University, Geelong 3216, Australia
Department of Engineering, School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham NG11 8NS, UK
Institute for Intelligent Systems Research and Innovation (IISRI), Deakin University, Geelong 3216, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(9), 3020;
Received: 7 April 2020 / Revised: 21 April 2020 / Accepted: 22 April 2020 / Published: 26 April 2020
Building on the recent progress of four-dimensional (4D) printing to produce dynamic structures, this study aimed to bring this technology to the next level by introducing control-based 4D printing to develop adaptive 4D-printed systems with highly versatile multi-disciplinary applications, including medicine, in the form of assisted soft robots, smart textiles as wearable electronics and other industries such as agriculture and microfluidics. This study introduced and analysed adaptive 4D-printed systems with an advanced manufacturing approach for developing stimuli-responsive constructs that organically adapted to environmental dynamic situations and uncertainties as nature does. The adaptive 4D-printed systems incorporated synergic integration of three-dimensional (3D)-printed sensors into 4D-printing and control units, which could be assembled and programmed to transform their shapes based on the assigned tasks and environmental stimuli. This paper demonstrates the adaptivity of these systems via a combination of proprioceptive sensory feedback, modeling and controllers, as well as the challenges and future opportunities they present. View Full-Text
Keywords: control-based; 4D-printing; adaptive; 4D-printed systems control-based; 4D-printing; adaptive; 4D-printed systems
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zolfagharian, A.; Kaynak, A.; Bodaghi, M.; Kouzani, A.Z.; Gharaie, S.; Nahavandi, S. Control-Based 4D Printing: Adaptive 4D-Printed Systems. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 3020.

AMA Style

Zolfagharian A, Kaynak A, Bodaghi M, Kouzani AZ, Gharaie S, Nahavandi S. Control-Based 4D Printing: Adaptive 4D-Printed Systems. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(9):3020.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zolfagharian, Ali; Kaynak, Akif; Bodaghi, Mahdi; Kouzani, Abbas Z.; Gharaie, Saleh; Nahavandi, Saeid. 2020. "Control-Based 4D Printing: Adaptive 4D-Printed Systems" Appl. Sci. 10, no. 9: 3020.

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