This work proposes the evaluation of a set of algorithms of machine learning and the selection of the most appropriate one for the classification of segmented chromosomes images acquired using the Giemsa staining technique (G-banding). The evaluation and selection of the best classification algorithms was carried out over a dataset of 119 Q-banding chromosomes images, and the obtained results were then applied to a dataset of 24 G-band chromosomes images, manually classified by an expert of the Laboratory of Cytogenetic of the Children’s Hospital of Tamaulipas. The results of evaluation of 51 classifiers yielded that the best classification accuracy for the selected features was obtained by a backpropagation neural network. One of the main contributions of this study is the proposal of a two-stage classification scheme based on the best classifier found by the initial evaluation. In stage 1, chromosome images are classified into three major groups. In stage 2, the output of phase 1 is used as the input of a multiclass classifier. Using this scheme, 82% of the IGB bank samples and 88% of the samples of a bank of images obtained with a Q-band available in the literature consisting of 119 chromosome studies were successfully classified. The proposed work is a part of an desktop application that allows cytogeneticist to automatically generate cytogenetic reports.
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