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Open AccessArticle

Pollution Characteristics of Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10) and Constituent Carbonaceous Aerosols in a South Asian Future Megacity

1
Department of Environmental Sciences & Engineering, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
2
Environmental Science Centre, Qatar University, Doha P.O. Box 2713, Qatar
3
Department of Farm Machinery & Power, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering & Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan
4
Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy, Max-Eyth-Allee 100, 14469 Potsdam-Bornim, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(24), 8864; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10248864
Received: 29 October 2020 / Revised: 6 December 2020 / Accepted: 7 December 2020 / Published: 11 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Air Quality Monitoring and Assessment)
The future megacity of Faisalabad is of prime interest when considering environmental health because of its bulky population and abundant industrial and anthropogenic sources of coarse particles (PM10) and fine airborne particulate matter (PM2.5). The current study was aimed to investigate the concentration level of PM2.5 and PM10, also the characterization of carbonaceous aerosols including organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and total carbon (TC) in PM2.5 and PM10 samples collected from five different sectors (residential, health, commercial, industrial, and vehicular zone). The data presented here are the first of their kind in this sprawling city having industries and agricultural activities side by side. Results of the study revealed that the mass concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 is at an elevated level throughout Faisalabad, with ambient PM2.5 and PM10 points that constantly exceeded the 24-h standards of US-EPA, and National Environment Quality Standards (NEQS) which poses harmful effects on the quality of air and health. The total carbon concentration varied between 21.33 and 206.84 μg/m3, and 26.08 and 211.15 μg/m3 with an average of 119.16 ± 64.91 μg/m3 and 124.71 ± 64.38 μg/m3 for PM2.5 in summer and winter seasons, respectively. For PM10, the concentration of TC varied from 34.52 to 289.21 μg/m3 with an average of 181.50 ± 87.38 μg/m3 (for summer season) and it ranged between 44.04 and 300.02 μg/m3 with an average of 191.04 ± 87.98 μg/m3 (winter season), respectively. No significant difference between particulate concentration and weather parameters was observed. Similarly, results of air quality index (AQI) and pollution index (PI) stated that the air quality of Faisalabad ranges from poor to severely pollute. In terms of AQI, moderate pollution was recorded on sampling sites in the following order; Ittehad Welfare Dispensary > Saleemi Chowk > Kashmir Road > Pepsi Factory, while at Nazria Pakistan Square and Allied Hospital, higher AQI values were recorded. The analysis and results presented in this study can be used by policy-makers to apply rigorous strategies that decrease air pollution and the associated health effects in Faisalabad. View Full-Text
Keywords: particulate matter; aerosols; vehicular exhaust; industrial activity; WHO; NEQS; US-EPA particulate matter; aerosols; vehicular exhaust; industrial activity; WHO; NEQS; US-EPA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aslam, A.; Ibrahim, M.; Shahid, I.; Mahmood, A.; Irshad, M.K.; Yamin, M.; Ghazala; Tariq, M.; Shamshiri, R.R. Pollution Characteristics of Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10) and Constituent Carbonaceous Aerosols in a South Asian Future Megacity. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 8864. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10248864

AMA Style

Aslam A, Ibrahim M, Shahid I, Mahmood A, Irshad MK, Yamin M, Ghazala, Tariq M, Shamshiri RR. Pollution Characteristics of Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10) and Constituent Carbonaceous Aerosols in a South Asian Future Megacity. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(24):8864. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10248864

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aslam, Afifa; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Shahid, Imran; Mahmood, Abid; Irshad, Muhammad K.; Yamin, Muhammad; Ghazala; Tariq, Muhammad; Shamshiri, Redmond R. 2020. "Pollution Characteristics of Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10) and Constituent Carbonaceous Aerosols in a South Asian Future Megacity" Appl. Sci. 10, no. 24: 8864. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10248864

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