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Article

Voice as a Mouse Click: Usability and Effectiveness of Simplified Hands-Free Gaze-Voice Selection

1
Laboratory for Neurocognitive Technologies, NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, 123182 Moscow, Russia
2
Center of Cognitive Programs and Technologies, The Russian State University for the Humanities, 125993 Moscow, Russia
3
MEG Center, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, 123290 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(24), 8791; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10248791
Received: 24 November 2020 / Revised: 5 December 2020 / Accepted: 7 December 2020 / Published: 9 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue User Experience for Advanced Human–Computer Interaction)
Voice- and gaze-based hands-free input are increasingly used in human-machine interaction. Attempts to combine them into a hybrid technology typically employ the voice channel as an information-rich channel. Voice seems to be “overqualified” to serve simply as a substitute of a computer mouse click, to confirm selections made by gaze. It could be expected that the user would feel discomfort if they had to frequently make “clicks” using their voice, or easily get bored, which also could lead to low performance. To test this, we asked 23 healthy participants to select moving objects with smooth pursuit eye movements. Manual confirmation of selection was faster and rated as more convenient than voice-based confirmation. However, the difference was not high, especially when voice was used to pronounce objects’ numbers (speech recognition was not applied): Score of convenience (M ± SD) was 9.2 ± 1.1 for manual and 8.0 ± 2.1 for voice confirmation, and time spent per object was 1269 ± 265 ms and 1626 ± 331 ms, respectively. We conclude that “voice-as-click” can be used to confirm selection in gaze-based interaction with computers as a substitute for the computer mouse click when manual confirmation cannot be used. View Full-Text
Keywords: hands-free interaction; gaze-based interaction; voice; voice command; selection; moving objects; smooth pursuit; eye movements; human-machine interaction hands-free interaction; gaze-based interaction; voice; voice command; selection; moving objects; smooth pursuit; eye movements; human-machine interaction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, D.G.; Karikov, N.D.; Melnichuk, E.V.; Velichkovsky, B.M.; Shishkin, S.L. Voice as a Mouse Click: Usability and Effectiveness of Simplified Hands-Free Gaze-Voice Selection. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 8791. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10248791

AMA Style

Zhao DG, Karikov ND, Melnichuk EV, Velichkovsky BM, Shishkin SL. Voice as a Mouse Click: Usability and Effectiveness of Simplified Hands-Free Gaze-Voice Selection. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(24):8791. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10248791

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhao, Darisy G., Nikita D. Karikov, Eugeny V. Melnichuk, Boris M. Velichkovsky, and Sergei L. Shishkin. 2020. "Voice as a Mouse Click: Usability and Effectiveness of Simplified Hands-Free Gaze-Voice Selection" Applied Sciences 10, no. 24: 8791. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10248791

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